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10B (2004TI06)

(See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B)

GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 10B located on our website at: (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/10b.shtml).

See also Table 2 preview 2 in (1988AJ01) [Electromagnetic Transitions in A = 5-10] (in PDF or PS), Table 10.18 preview 10.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) and Table 10.19 preview 10.19 [Electromagnetic transitions in 10B] (in PDF or PS).

μ = +1.80064475 ± 0.00000057 μN: see (1989RA17);

Q = +84.72 ± 0.56 mb: see (1978LEZA, 1989RA17).

Mass of 10B: The mass excess adopted by (2003AU03) is 12050.7 ± 0.4 keV.

Isotopic abundance: (19.9 ± 0.2)% (1984DE53).

10B*(0.72): μ = +0.63 ± 0.12 μN: see (1978LEZA, 1989RA17).

B(E2)(↓) for 10B*(0.72) = 4.18 ± 0.02 e2 · fm4 (1983VE03).

Electromagnetic transitions: Detailed information on electromagnetic transition strengths in 10B is displayed in Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS). Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS) relates to levels below the proton threshold and draws on Table 10.21 preview 10.21 (in PDF or PS) for the lifetimes of bound levels and on Table 10.22 preview 10.22 (in PDF or PS) for radiative widths from the 6Li(α, γ)10B reaction. With the exception of the 5.11 MeV 2- level with one nucleon in the sd shell and the 5.18 MeV 1+ level with two nucleons in the sd shell, the remaining levels in Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS) have been established as being dominantly p-shell in character. Furthermore, analysis of the empirical p-shell wave functions which best fit the electromagnetic data shows that the p-shell states all have mainly [42] spatial symmetry and that L and KL (to distinguish the two D states) are rather good quantum numbers (1979KU05). Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS) relates to levels above the proton threshold studied mainly via the 9Be(p, γ)10B reaction. The region contains a number of overlapping resonances including a number of isospin-mixed s-wave resonances involving the analogs of the 5.96 MeV 1- and 6.26 MeV 2- levels of 10Be. The lowest negative-parity states also have mainly [42] spatial symmetry and in addition (51) SU3 symmetry. Thus, the 1- and 2- T = 1 states above are mainly 1P and 1D in character while for the T = 0 states the dominant components are as follows: 3P for the 5.11 MeV 2- state, 3D for the 6.13 MeV 3- state, 3F for the 6.56 MeV 4- state, and 3P for the 6.88 MeV 1- state.

1. 6Li(α, γ)10B Qm = 4.4610

Observed resonances are displayed in Table 10.22 preview 10.22 (in PDF or PS). For a discussion of isovector parity-mixing between the 5.11 MeV and 5.16 MeV levels of 10B see (1984NA07) in which thick-target yields were measured with a 6Li polarized target to obtain a parity-mixing parameter. In later work (1989BA24) strengths and mixing ratios of γ-transitions from these two levels were measured. However, it is clear that for the transitions to the 1.740 MeV level contributions from the double-escape peaks of stronger transitions to the 0.718 MeV level were not properly accounted for. For the 2+; 1 → 0+; 1 transition, the published 4% branch disagrees with the limit of < 0.5% in Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and would correspond to a B(E2) of 140 W.u. Similarly, the branch of 10.9% for the 2-; 0 → 0+; 1 transition corresponds to a B(M2) of 130 W.u. The mixing ratios from 3-point angular distributions also appear unreliable. Total transition strengths of ωγcm = 0.046 ± 0.004 eV and 0.385 ± 0.020 eV were determined for the 2- and 2+ resonances, respectively, which are in good agreement with the values in Table 10.22 preview 10.22 (in PDF or PS). For a preliminary report involving a target of laser-polarized 6Li atoms see (1987MU13). See also the astrophysics-related work in (1996RE16, 1997NO04).

2. (a) 6Li(α, n)9B Qm = -3.9753 Eb = 4.4610
(b) 6Li(α, p)9Be Qm = -2.1249
(c) 6Li(α, d)8Be Qm = -1.5657

The excitation functions for neutrons [from threshold to Eα = 15.5 MeV] and for deuterons [Eα = 9.5 to 25 MeV; d0, d1 over most of range] do not show resonance structure: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). Reaction-mechanism studies of (α, p) and (α, d) at Eα = 26.7 MeV are reported in (1990LI37) and (1989LI24), respectively. A calculation of the (α, d) cross section at Eα ≤ 24 MeV is described in (1994FU07).

3. (a) 6Li(α, α)6Li Eb = 4.461008
(b) 6Li(α, 2α)2H Qm = -1.473844

Excitation functions of α0 and α1 have been reported for Eα ≤ 18.0 MeV and 9.5 to 12.5 MeV, respectively: see (1974AJ01). Reported anomalies are displayed in Table 10.23 preview 10.23 (in PDF or PS). Elastic scattering and VAP measurements are reported for E(pol. 6Li) = 15.1 to 22.7 MeV [see (1984AJ01)] and at E(pol. 6Li) = 19.8 MeV (1986CAZT; also TAP). Differential cross section measurements at Eα = 50 MeV are reported by (1992SA01, 1996BU06). Theoretical work reported since the previous review include: studies of target-clustering influence on exchange effects (1988LE06); knock-out exchange contributions in RGM (1989LE07); a description of a double-folding model potential (1993SI09); calculations with a multi-configuration RGM (1995FU11); a study of continuum-continuum coupling for 6Li → α + d breakup data (1995KA07); a folding-potential analysis for Eα = 3 - 50.5 MeV (1995SA12); and a study of coupling effects of resonant and continuum states for 6Li(α, α) at Eα = 40 MeV (1996SI13). Small anomalies have been reported in reaction (b) corresponding to 10B*(8.67, 9.65, 10.32, 11.65): see (1984AJ01). See, however, Table 10.18 preview 10.18 (in PDF or PS). See also 6Li in (1988AJ01, 2002TI10), (1987BU27), (1986ST1E; applications) and (1986YA15, 1988LE06; theor.).

4. 6Li(6Li, d)10B Qm = 2.9872

Angular distributions of deuteron groups have been determined at E(6Li) = 2.4 to 9.0 MeV (d0, d1, d3) and 7.35 and 9.0 MeV (d4, d5). The d2 groups corresponding to the isospin-forbidden reaction 6Li(6Li, d2)10B (0+; 1) were observed weakly in early work (see (1974AJ01)) and 12C in (1980AJ01). More recent angular distribution measurements (1993WI13) at E(6Li) = 3 - 8 MeV deduced the isospin-breaking matrix element.

A reaction-mechanism study of 6Li(6Li, d)10B for Ecm = 7.2 - 13.3 MeV is described in (1987AR13).

5. 7Li(3He, γ)10B Qm = 17.7883

Capture γ-rays have been observed for E(3He) = 0.8 to 6.0 MeV. The γ0 and γ5 yields [to 10B*(0, 4.77)] show resonances at E(3He) = 1.1 and 2.2 MeV [Eres = 0.92 and 2.1 MeV], the γ1 and γ4 yields [to 10B*(0.72, 3.59)] at 1.4 MeV and the γ4 yield at 3.4 MeV: see Table 10.10 preview 10.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01). Both the 1.1 and 2.2 MeV resonances [10B*(18.4, 19.3)] appear to result from s-wave capture; the subsequent decay is to two 3+ states [10B*(0, 4.77)]. Therefore the most likely assignment is Jπ = 2-; T = 1 for both [there appears to be no decay of these states via α2 to 6Li*(3.56) which has Jπ = 0+; T = 1: see reaction 9]. The assignment for 10B*(18.8) [1.4 MeV resonance] is 1+ or 2+ but there appears to be α2 decay and therefore Jπ = 2+. 10B*(20.1) [3.4 MeV resonance] has an isotropic angular distribution of γ4 and therefore Jπ = 1-, 2-. The γ2 group resonates at this energy which eliminates 2-. See (1974AJ01) for references.

6. 7Li(3He, n)9B Qm = 9.3520 Eb = 17.7883

The excitation curve is smooth up to E(3He) = 1.8 MeV and the n0 yield shows resonance behavior at E(3He) = 2.2 and 3.25 MeV, Γlab = 270 ± 30 and 500 ± 100 keV. No other resonances are observed up to E(3He) = 5.5 MeV. See Table 10.10 preview 10.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01), (1986AB10; theor.) and (1974AJ01).

7. 7Li(3He, p)9Be Qm = 11.2025 Eb = 17.7883

The yield of protons has been measured for E(3He) = 0.60 to 4.8 MeV: there is some indication of weak maxima at 1.1, 2.3 and 3.3 MeV. Measurements of Ay for the ground-state group at E(pol. 3He) = 14 MeV (1983LE17, 1983RO22) and 33 MeV (1983LE17) have been reported. Measurements of differential cross sections and analyzing powers were reported at E(3He) = 4.6 MeV (1995BA24). The polarization at E(3He) = 14 MeV was measured by (1984ME11, 1984TR03). P = A in this and in the inverse reaction [see reaction 4 in 12C in (1985AJ01) for some additional comments]. Proton yields as a function of angle were measured for E(3He) = 93 MeV by (1994DO32). Astrophysics-related measurements at Ecm = 0.5 - 2 MeV (1990RA16) and E(3He) = 160, 170 keV (2002YA06) have been reported. Astrophysical S-factors were deduced. A theoretical study of the reaction mechanism and astrophysical implications are described in (1993YA01). Calculations for the reaction and the inverse reaction to deduce time-reversal-invariance violation amplitude features were reported in (1988KH11). For earlier references see (1984AJ01). See also (1986AB10; theor.).

8. (a) 7Li(3He, d)8Be Qm = 11.2025 Eb = 17.7883
(b) 7Li(3He, t)7Be Qm = -0.88081
(c) 7Li(3He, 3He)7Li

Yields of deuterons have been measured for E(3He) = 1.0 to 2.5 MeV (d0) and yields of tritons are reported for 2.0 to 4.2 MeV (t0): a broad peak is reported at E(3He) ≈ 3.5 MeV in the t0 yield. See (1979AJ01) for references. Polarization measurements are reported at E(pol. 3He) = 33.3 MeV for the deuteron groups to 8Be*(16.63, 17.64, 18.15) and for the triton and 3He groups to 7Be*(0, 0.43) and 7Li*(0, 0.48, 4.63): see (1984AJ01). Measurements of the yields for deuterons, alphas, tritons and 3He as a function of angle at E(3He) = 93 MeV are described in (1994DO32). A compilation and analysis of cross section data for studying evidence for clusters in 7Li is presented in (1995MI16).

9. 7Li(3He, α)6Li Qm = 13.32732 Eb = 17.78833

Excitation functions have been measured for E(3He) = 1.3 to 18.0 MeV: see (1974AJ01). The α0 group (at 8°) shows a broad maximum at ≈ 2 MeV, a minimum at 3 MeV, followed by a steep rise which flattens off between E(3He) = 4.5 and 5.5 MeV. Integrated α0 and α1 yields rise monotonically to 4 MeV and then tend to decrease. Angular distributions give evidence of the resonances at E(3He) = 1.4 and 2.1 MeV seen in 7Li(3He, γ)10B: Jπ = 2+ or 1-; T = (1) for both [see, however, reaction 5]: Γα is small. The α2 yield [to 6Li*(3.56), Jπ = 0+; T = 1] shows some structure at E(3He) = 1.4 MeV and a broad maximum at ≈ 3.3 MeV: see Table 10.10 preview 10.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01). Polarization measurements are reported at E(pol. 3He) = 33.3 MeV to 6Li*(0, 2.19, 3.56): see (1984AJ01). See also (1983AN1D, 1984PA1E, 1994DO32).

10. 7Li(α, n)10B Qm = -2.7893

Angular distributions are reported at Eα = 28 and 32 MeV for the n0, n1 and n2 groups (1985GUZQ). See (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01) for the earlier work. Neutron spectra and photon yields from 7Li(α, n) neutron sources for Eα = 5.5 - 5.8 MeV were measured by (1993VL02).

11. (a) 7Li(12C, α + 6Li)9Be Qm = -12.9515
(b) 7Li(12C, d + 8Be)9Be Qm = -14.5172
(c) 7Li(12C, p + 9Be)9Be Qm = -15.0764

The breakup of 10B was studied (2001LE05) in an experiment with 76 MeV 12C incident on Li2O. Breakup of 10B into α + 6Li, α + 6Li*(3+), 8Be + d and 9Be + p was observed. Evidence was obtained for two new 10B states at Ex = 7.96 ± 0.07 MeV, Γ = 285 ± 91 keV and Ex = 9.58 ± 60 MeV, Γ = 257 ± 64 keV. The energy spectrum is dominated by T = 0 states that decay into 6Lig.s. + α.

12. 9Be(p, γ)10B Qm = 6.5859

Parameters of the observed resonances are listed in Table 10.14 preview 10.24 (in PDF or PS). An angle-integrated excitation function has been measured over the energy range Ep = 75 to 1800 keV (1995ZA04). This establishes the absolute (p, γ) cross sections for this region with considerably more certainty than existed at the time of the previous review (1988AJ01). Table 10.24 preview 10.24 (in PDF or PS) lists six resonances in this energy region with 5 rather broad resonances and a narrow Jπ = 0+; T = 1 resonance (Γcm = 2.65 keV) at Ep = 1038 keV. The excitation function is dominated by three broad unresolved resonances at Ep = 938, 980, and 992 keV. The existence of the 938 keV resonance has been established from analyses of the excitation functions for γ-ray transitions to specific final states. However, the 2+ and 2- levels near 990 keV have similar widths and dominant ground-state radiative transitions and thus cannot be distinguished from consideration of the (p, γ) data alone. The γ transitions from this reaction are given in Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS) and the information obtained is summarized in the following discussion.

The Ep = 330 keV resonance (Ex = 6.87 MeV) is ascribed to s-wave protons because of its comparatively large proton width [see 9Be(p, p)] and because of the isotropy of the γ radiation. The strong E1 transitions to both T = 0 and T = 1 final states in Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS) indicate considerable isospin mixing (1956WI16) because only T = 0 ↔ T = 1 isovector E1 transitions are possible in 10B. The transition to the 1.74 MeV level implies Jπ = 1- and its relative strength, together with the existence of substantial deuteron and alpha widths, indicates a dominance of T = 0 for the 6.87 MeV state.

Most of the data in Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS) comes from an analysis of the excitation functions for γ-ray transitions to specific final states (1964HO02). The Ep = 938 keV resonance was originally given a tentative Jπ = 2-; T = 0 assignment. The 1- assignment was made for a resonance in elastic proton scattering at Ep = 945 ± 10 keV with a width Γcm = 130 ± 10 keV and the suggestion was made that this level is the missing isospin-mixed partner of the 6.87 MeV level (1969MO29). An estimate of the isospin mixing was made in (1969RO12). See also the appendix in (2001BA47). The relative E1 strengths for the transitions to the 1+; 0 levels at 0.72 and 2.15 MeV imply T = 1 isospin admixtures of 15% and 21%, respectively, and the strength of the 7.43 → 1.74 E1 transition expected for this level of admixture is just below the observed upper limit. The strong M1 transition to the 2-; 0 level at 5.11 MeV, expected to be mainly 1P → 3P, implies an isospin admixture of ≈ 8.5% but this should be treated as a lower limit because some of the 7.43 → 5.11 strength may be due to one or both of the two levels near 7.48 MeV (1964HO02). However, it does appear from Fig. 6 of (1975AU02) that the transition is mainly from the 7.43 MeV level. The T = 1 component of the 1- doublet corresponds to the 5.96 MeV level of 10Be shifted downwards by ≈ 400 keV with respect to p-shell levels on account of the smaller Coulomb energy shift for (sd) orbits. The 0.93 MeV resonance is also observed in the 9Be(p, d) and 9Be(p, α) reactions via the T = 0 component in the wave function (1956WE37). The α width which results from the isospin mixing is sufficient to account for the strength of the 7.43 → 0.72 transition observed via the 6Li(α, γ) reaction and calls into question the existence of a 2-; 0 level at 7.43 MeV proposed by (1975AU02).

The prominent Ep = 992 keV resonance was originally assigned as 2-; 1 largely on account of the apparent s-wave formation and the strength of the ground-state transition (1964HO02). However, earlier elastic proton scattering data had indicated the existence of a p-wave 2+ state near 980 keV and an s-wave 2- state near 998 keV (1956MO90). See also (1969MO29). Then, low-energy electron scattering [see 10B(e, e')] revealed a very strong M1 transition to a state at this energy (1965SP04) which can account for over 70% of the (p, γ) cross section. This state was identified with the second 2+; 1 level predicted by shell model calculations with similar spatial structure to the 10B ground state. The analog in 10Be is at 5.96 MeV and is populated as a strong Gamow-Teller transition in charge-exchange reactions on 10B [see reaction 28 in 10Be].

Subtraction of the M1 strength associated with the 2+; 1 level leaves substantial ground-state transition strength for the 2- level, indicating a T = 1 component. The s-wave resonance at Ep = 1290 ± 30 keV also has a strong ground-state transition and was assigned as 2-; 1 (1964HO02). Thus, there appears to be a doublet of isospin-mixed 2- levels with the T = 1 component corresponding to the 6.26 MeV level of 10Be.

The narrow Ep = 1083 keV level is formed by p-wave protons and has Jπ = 0+ (see reaction 14 [9Be(p, p)] and reaction 16 [9Be(p, α)]). The isotropy of the γ rays supports this assignment. The strong M1 transitions to the Jπ = 1+; T = 0 levels at 0.72, 2.15, and 5.18 MeV [Table 10.22 preview 10.22 (in PDF or PS)] indicate T = 1. The analog is at 6.18 MeV in 10Be. The width of the 5.18 MeV level of 10B observed in the decay is 100 ± 10 keV (1975AU02). The 7.56 MeV 0+; 1 and 5.18 MeV 1+; 0 levels are the lowest (sd)2, or 2ℏω, levels in 10B. The strong M1 transition between them is consistent with these assignments.

Since the previous review (1988AJ01) several measurements and analyses have been done for low proton energies. Branching ratios and angular distributions for capture to 10B states at Ex = 0, 0.718, 1.740 and 2.154 MeV were measured for proton energies Ep = 40 - 180 keV (1992CE02). Astrophysical S-factors were deduced. Measurements of an angle integrated S-factor for Ep = 75 - 1800 keV were reported by (1995ZA04). The spectrum is dominated by three broad peaks and the analysis included interference effects with the direct-capture process. The best fit was obtained for Jπ values of 1-, 2-, and 2- and the resulting resonance energies were Ep(lab) = 380 ± 30, 989 ± 2 and 1405 ± 20 keV. The widths were Γlab = 330 ± 30, 90 ± 3 and 430 ± 30 keV, respectively. The low-energy S-factor is about one third of that obtained by (1992CE02). A measurement by (1998WU05) with 100 keV polarized protons on a thick 9Be target determined analyzing powers for capture to the 10B ground state and the first three excited states. Astrophysical S-factors were deduced using a direct-capture-plus-resonance model. These data were used in an evaluation of thermonuclear proton-capture rates by (2000NE09). Polarized protons at Ep = 280 - 0 keV were used (1999GA21) to measure the analyzing power for the ground state transition. Comparison of the results to calculations showed that the analyzing power could be reproduced only by the interference of direct capture with the tail of a 2+ resonance that was taken to be at 7.478 MeV (the 7.469 MeV state in Table 10.18 preview 10.18 (in PDF or PS)). Although these results indicate that the resonance strength in the (p, γ) channel near 7.48 MeV is predominantly 2+, the data do not rule out a small contribution from an additional state.

Existing data on 9Be(p, γ)10B were reanalyzed within the framework of an R-matrix method by (1999SA39). Parameters of resonances at Ep(cm) = 296, 890, 972 and 1196 keV were determined and compared (see Table II of (1999SA39)) with parameters given in (1988AJ01, 1995ZA04, 1998WU05). Data for proton energies up to Ep = 1800 keV and γ-transitions to the four lowest 10B states were fitted using R-matrix formulae by (2002BA09). A good fit was obtained with two 1- levels, two 2- levels, one 0+ level and one 2+ level. Level parameters derived from these fits using different combinations of input data are presented in Tables 5, 6, and 8 of (2002BA09). In related work since (1988AJ01), asymptotic normalization coefficients obtained from peripheral transfer reactions such as 10B(7Be, 8B)9Be at low energies have been used to determine 9Be(p, γ)10B S-factors (1999SA39). Extracted asymptotic normalization coefficients used for determining stellar reaction rates for 9Be(p, γ)10B are discussed in (2003KR14). See also the astrophysics-related work (1996RE16, 1997NO04, 2000IC01).

For further information concerning 9Be(p, γ)10B experiments for Ep > 1330 keV, refer to (1988AJ01).

13. 9Be(p, n)9B Qm = -1.8504 Eb = 6.5859

As noted in (1988AJ01), "Resonances in the neutron yield occur at Ep = 2562 ± 6, 4720 ± 10 and, possibly, at 3500 keV with Γcm = 84 ± 7, ≈ 500 and ≈ 700 keV. These three resonances correspond to 10B*(8.890, 10.83, 9.7): see Table 10.13 preview 10.13 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01). Cross section measurements for the (p, n) and (p, n0) reactions have been obtained by (1983BY01; Ep = 8.15 to 15.68 MeV) [see also for a review of earlier work]. They indicate possible structure in 10B near 13 - 14 MeV (1983BY01)."

"The Ep = 2.56 MeV resonance is considerably broader than that observed at the same energy in 9Be(p, α) and 9Be(p, γ) and the two resonances are believed to be distinct. The shape of the resonance and the magnitude of the cross section can be accounted for with Jπ = 3- or 3+; the former assignment is in better accord with 10Be*(7.37). For Jπ = 3-, θ2n = 0.135, θ2p = 0.115 (R = 4.47 fm): see (1974AJ01)."

"The analyzing power for n0 has been measured for Ep = 2.7 to 17 MeV (1980MA33, 1983BY02, 1986MU07) as has the polarization in the range Ep = 2.7 to 10 MeV (1983BY02). See (1983BY02, 1986MU07) for discussions of the σ(θ), Ay(θ) and P(θ) measurements. Polarization measurements have also been reported at Epol. p = 3.9 to 15.1 MeV and 800 MeV: [see (1984AJ01)] and at 53.5, 53.9 and 71.0 MeV (1988HE08) [Ky'y, Kz'z]."

A summary of monoenergetic neutron beam sources for En > 14 MeV is presented in (1990BR24). See also the measurements at Ep = 300, 400 MeV reported in (1994SA43). Neutron spectra were measured for Ep = 20 - 40 MeV (1996SH29) and for Ep = 3 - 5 MeV (2001HO13). See also the measurements of σ(En) for Ep = 35 MeV (1987OR02) and the thick-target yield measurements of (1987RA23). This reaction was used by (1987RA32) at Ep = 135 MeV to deduce Gamow-Teller transitions B(GT) and the quenching factor. Measurements of σ(θ) at Ep = 35 MeV were used to study the isovector part of optical potentials through analog transitions. Calculations of σ(θ, En) for Ep = 1 GeV are described in (1994GA49). See also the analysis for Ep = 800 MeV to study pion-production medium effects (1998IO03). See also 9B and references cited in (1988AJ01).

14. (a) 9Be(p, p)9Be Eb = 6.5859
(b) 9Be(p, p + n)8Be Qm = -1.6654
(c) 9Be(p, p + α)5He Qm = -2.467

The elastic scattering resonances up to Ex = 8 MeV shown in Table 10.25 preview 10.25 (in PDF or PS) come from (1956MO90, 1969MO29). Below Ep = 0.7 MeV only s-waves are present exhibiting a resonance at Ep = 330 keV with Jπ = 1-. Apart from the tentative 1+ assignment at Ep = 1200 keV, which was introduced to satisfy a need for resonant p-wave formation (1969MO29), there is good agreement between the results of (1956MO90) and (1969MO29). The analysis requires a large d-wave admixture with the s-wave protons forming the Ep = 1340 keV resonance (1969MO29).

Between Ep = 0.8 and 1.6 MeV polarization and cross section measurements are well fitted by a phase-shift analysis using only 3S1, 5S2, 5P1, and 5P2 phases (1973RO24). However, the spin assignments of 1+ for a state at Ex = 7.48 MeV and 1- for a state at Ex = 7.82 MeV to fit this data are in disagreement with the assignments in Table 10.25 preview 10.25 (in PDF or PS) and with other data. In particular, these assignments leave no state near 7.48 MeV to explain the strong M1 transition observed in electron scattering and no state near 7.8 MeV to explain the strong radiative transition to the ground state (2001BA47).

The 2+ state at 8.07 MeV has been observed via inelastic electron scattering and given the same spin-parity assignment. It has also been observed via inelastic pion scattering.

The next prominent elastic scattering resonance occurs at Ep = 2.56 MeV (Ex = 8.89 MeV) and has a width of ≈ 100 keV. The analogs of the 7.37 MeV 3- and 7.54 MeV 2+ levels of 10Be are known to be nearly degenerate at 8.89 MeV in 10B. The 3- level (Γ ≈ 85 keV) dominates in the 9Be(p, p) and 9Be(p, n) reactions while the 2+ level (Γ ≈ 40 keV) dominates the 9Be(p, α2γ)6Li cross section (1977KI04). In fits to elastic scattering in this region (1983AL10), including polarization data (1976MA58), a number of other relatively narrow states have been introduced between 8.4 and 9.1 MeV. The data of (1983AL10) extends to Ep = 5 MeV and three more levels have been proposed. The highest at Ep = 4.72 MeV (Ex = 10.83 MeV) occurs at an energy where resonances have been observed in a number of other reaction channels. The assignment of Jπ = 2+; T = 1 is consistent with that obtained for a resonance observed in the 9Be(p, p0), 9Be(p, p2), and 9Be(p, α2) reactions (1974YA1C).

15. (a) 9Be(p, t)7Be Qm = -12.0833 Eb = 6.5859
(b) 9Be(p, 3He)7Li Qm = -11.2025

Polarization measurements (reaction (b)) are reported at Epol. p = 23.06 MeV: see (1984AJ01). For a study at Ep = 190 and 300 MeV see (1987GR11). See also (1985SE15).

16. (a) 9Be(p, d)8Be Qm = 0.5592 Eb = 6.5859
(b) 9Be(p, α)6Li Qm = 2.1249

Proton-induced reactions on 9Be are of considerable interest in regard to primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis. Subsequent to the previous compilation (1988AJ01), there have been two studies of the reactions (a) and (b) at low proton energies (1997ZA06, 1998BR10). Excitation functions and angular distributions for Ep = 16 to 390 keV have been measured by (1997ZA06). Both polarized and unpolarized protons have been used by (1998BR10) to measure angular distributions and analyzing powers for Ep = 77 to 321 keV. Earlier measurements (1973SI27) provided excitation functions for Ep = 30 to 700 keV and angular distributions for Ep = 110 to 600 keV. The prominent feature in the excitation functions for both reactions, expressed as values of the astrophysical S factors, is a peak at Ep ≈ 310 keV attributed to the 6.87 MeV 1- level of 10B. The analyses of both (1997ZA06) and (1998BR10) indicate substantial direct reaction contributions to the 9Be(p, d)8Be cross section at energies below the Ep ≈ 310 keV resonance.

The low-energy data and attempts to fit it are summarized by (2001BA47) where an R-matrix fit of almost all the data is performed for Ep ≤ 700 keV. The discussion in (2001BA47) includes arguments questioning some of the 10B Jπ assignments of (1988AJ01). In particular, it is argued in Appendix A of (2001BA47) that the dominantly T = 1 isospin-mixed partner of the 6.87 MeV 1-; 0 + 1 level exists near Ex = 7.44 MeV (see reaction 12 and Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS)) where a resonance is seen in reactions (a) and (b) (1956WE37).

Table 10.26 preview 10.26 (in PDF or PS) shows resonances observed in early measurements of excitation functions for deuterons and α-particles. Up to Ep = 2.3 MeV, the information is taken from a multi-level R-matrix analysis of the p, d0, α0, α1, and γ channels by (1969CO1J) [see also (1964HO02, 1969MO29)] omitting only the nearly pure T = 1 states at 7.47 MeV (2+) and 7.56 MeV (0+). (1969CO1J) give reduced widths and radiative widths for all these states. The separation of the 3-/2+; T = 1 doublet at Ep = 2.56 MeV comes from an R-matrix analysis of the (α2γ) and p0 yields by (1977KI04). The higher resonances appear on a background of direct reaction contributions and, given the assignment of both α2 and α0 or α1 decays in the same or different experiments (1959MA20, 1974YA1C), it is not clear whether the resonances are due to isospin-mixed or unresolved states.

The existence of a 3.5 MeV resonance (Ex = 9.7 MeV) included in the previous compilation (1988AJ01) and assigned T = 1 was based on a small bump in the 9Be(p, αγ)6Li cross section between the 2.56 MeV and 4.5 MeV resonances (1959MA20). However, there is no known analog state in 10Be and no resonance structure is observed in the 9Be(n, α)6He spectrum (1957ST95).

Other measurements at higher energies include those at Ep = 50 MeV (1989GU08), Ep = 25, 30 MeV (1992PE12), Ep = 2.475 MeV (1994LE08; applications), Ep = 40 MeV (1997FA17), and Ep = 60 MeV (1987KA25). For earlier measurements see (1988AJ01). Polarization measurements have been made in the range Ep = 0.30 to 15 MeV and at 185 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)] and at Epol. p = 60 MeV (1987KA25; Ay; inclusive deuteron spectra).

Theoretical work and other analyses of these reactions are discussed in (1987GO27, 1991AB04, 1992KO26, 1992KW01, 1996YA09, 1997NO04, 1999TI07, 2000GA49, 2000GA59).

17. 9Be(d, n)10B Qm = 4.3613

Neutron groups are observed corresponding to the 10B states listed in Table 10.27 preview 10.27 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured for Ed = 0.5 to 16 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)], at 8 MeV (1986BA40; n0 → n5, n6+7+8; also at 4 MeV to the latter) and at 18 MeV (1987KAZL; n0, n1) and at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MeV (1995VU01; n0, n6). At 25 MeV differential cross sections were measured and analyzed for levels below 6.57 MeV (1992MI03). Spectroscopic factors were deduced and compared with previous data and with coupled-reaction-channel calculations. See Tables 2 and 3 of (1992MI03). Observed γ-transitions are listed in Table 10.16 preview 10.16 (in PDF or PS) of (1979AJ01). See Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS), Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS) and Table 10.21 preview 10.21 (in PDF or PS) here for the parameters of radiative transitions and for τm. Measurements of neutron angular distributions for Ed = 15, 18 MeV were analyzed (1988KA30) in the framework of the peripheral model of direct reactions. Neutron yields and differential cross sections at Ed = 40 MeV were measured by (1987SC11). See also the neutron measurements at Ed = 2.6 - 7 MeV (1993ME10), Ed = 21 MeV (1994CO26), Ed = 20.2 MeV (1998BE31), Ed = 5 - 10 MeV (1998OL04), Ed = 0.5 - 1.54 MeV (1999AB38), and Ed = 9.8 MeV (1999JO03). Application-related yields and spectra were measured at Ed = 1.5, 1.95, 2.5 and 5 MeV by (2002COZZ). At low energies (Ed = 24 - 111 keV), cross sections were measured and astrophysical S factors were deduced by (2001HO23). An analysis of differential cross sections for Ed = 7 - 15 MeV was used to deduce optical model parameters and asymptotic normalization coefficients (2000FE08). 10B level information resulting from 9Be(d, n) experiments prior to (1988AJ01) was summarized in (1988AJ01).

See also 11B in (1985AJ01) and references cited in (1988AJ01). Angular distributions of neutrons from 9Be(d, n) at E(9Be) = 3 - 7 MeV were measured by (2002MA20).

18. 9Be(3He, d)10B Qm = 1.0924

Deuteron groups have been observed to a number of states of 10B: see Table 10.27 preview 10.27 (in PDF or PS). Prior to the previous review (1988AJ01) angular distributions had been reported at E(3He) = 10 - 33.3 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)]. More recently, differential cross sections were measured and analyzed at E(3He) = 32.5 MeV (1993AR14), 22.3 - 34 MeV (1996AR07), and 42 MeV (1998AR15). Nuclear vertex constants and spectroscopic factors were deduced for the population of 10B levels at Ex = 0.0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15 MeV. As noted in (1988AJ01), spectroscopic factors obtained in the (d, n) and (3He, d) reactions are not in good agreement: see the discussions in (1974KE06, 1980BL02, 1992MI03). See also the theoretical discussions in (1986AV01, 1989BO26, 1990KA17, 1997VO06).

19. 9Be(α, t)10B Qm = -13.2280

Angular distributions have been studied at Eα = 27, 28.3 and 43 MeV [see (1979AJ01)], at 30.2 MeV (1984VA07; t0, t1, t3, t4) and at 65 MeV (1980HA33). In the latter experiment DWBA analyses have been made of the angular distributions to 10B*(0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15, 3.59, 5.2, 5.92, 6.13, 6.56, 7.00, 7.5, 7.82, 8.9) and spectroscopic factors were derived. The angular distributions to 10B*(4.77, 6.03) could not be fitted by either DWBA or coupled channel analyses. In general coupled-channels calculations give a better fit to the 65 MeV data than does DWBA (1980HA33). Comparisons with other one-proton stripping reactions [(d, n) and (3He, d)] are discussed in (1980HA33) as well as in (1997VO06).

20. (a) 9Be(7Li, 6He)10B Qm = -3.3904
(b) 9Be(10B, 10B)9Be
(c) 9Be(11B, 10B)10Be Qm = -4.642
(d) 9Be(12C, 11B)10B Qm = -9.371

At E(7Li) = 34 MeV angular distributions have been obtained for the 6He ions to the first four states of 10B. Absolute values of the spectroscopic factors are S = 0.88, 1.38 (p1/2 or p3/2), 1.40, and 0.46 (p1/2), 0.54 (p3/2) for 10B*(0, 0.74, 1.74, 2.15) (FRDWBA analysis): see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AL1G). At E(7Li) = 14.13 MeV a measurement of secondary beam production yields was reported by (1991BE49).

Cross sections have been measured for reaction (b) at E(10B) = 100 MeV to obtain asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) (1997MU19, 1998MU09, 2001KR12). Astrophysical S-factors for 9Be(p, γ)10B were deduced. In work described in (2000FE08) ANC's were deduced from a set of proton transfer reactions at different energies to study the uniqueness of the ANC method.

For reaction (c), angular distributions were measured at Elab(11B) = 45 MeV (2003KY01) optical parameters for the 10B + 10Be interaction.

For reaction (d) angular distributions were measured at E(12C) = 65 MeV for transitions to 10B levels at 0.0, 0.72, 1.74 and 2.15 MeV (2000RU05). Data were analyzed within the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method. It was found that two-step processes are important for all transitions.

21. 10Be(β-)10B Qm = 0.5560

See 10Be.

22. 10Be(p, n)10B Qm = -0.2264

The yield of the n1 group has been studied for Ep = 0.9 to 2.0 MeV: see 11B in (1990AJ01) and (1986TE1A). An analysis of data for E = 0.95 - 1.9 MeV and application of dispersion theory of reaction excitation functions at two-particle channel thresholds was reported in (1988DU06).

23. (a) 10B(γ, n)9B Qm = -8.4363
(b) 10B(γ, p)9Be Qm = -6.5859
(c) 10B(γ, p + n)8Be Qm = -8.2513
(d) 10B(γ, π+)10Be Qm = -140.1262

Absolute measurements have been made of the 10B(γ, n) cross section from threshold to 35 MeV with quasimonoenergetic photons; the integrated cross section is 0.54 in units of the classical dipole sum (60NZ/A MeV · mb). The (γ, 2n) + (γ, 2np) cross section is zero, within statistics, for Eγ = 16 to 35 MeV: see (1979AJ01) and (1988DI02). The giant resonance is broad with the major structure contained in two peaks at Ex = 20.1 ± 0.1 and 23.1 ± 0.1 MeV (σmax ≈ 5.5 mb for each of the two maxima): see (1979AJ01). (1987AH02) [and H. H. Thies, private communication] [using bs] report two broad [Γ ≈ 2 MeV] maxima at 20.2 and 23.0 MeV [ ± 0.05 MeV] (σ = 5.0 and 6.0 mb, respectively; ± 10%) and a minor structure at Ex = 17.0 MeV. For reaction (b), differential cross section measurements were reported at Eγ = 66 - 103 MeV (1988SU14) and at 57.6 and 72.9 MeV (1998DE13). See also the knock-out mechanism analysis described in (1997JO07).

For reaction (c) see (1988SU14). For a DWIA study of reaction (d) for Eγ = 164 MeV, see the analysis reported in (1994SA44). See also 9Be, and the earlier references cited in (1988AJ01).

24. (a) 10B(e, e)10B
(b) 10B(e, eπ+)10Be Qm = -140.1262
(c) 10B(e, en)9B Qm = -8.4363
(d) 10B(e, ep)9Be Qm = -6.5859

Inelastic electron groups for which extensive form-factor measurements are available are displayed in Table 10.28 preview 10.28 (in PDF or PS). Transverse form factors in the momentum-transfer range q = 2.0 - 3.8 fm-1 were measured for 10B*(0, 1.74, 5.16) by (1988HI02). Measurements spanning the range q = 0.48 - 2.58 fm-1 were made by (1995CI02) to determine longitudinal and transverse form factors for 10B levels up to Ex = 6.7 MeV with the exception of the broad Ex = 5.18 MeV level. The experimental form factors are compared with the results of extensive shell-model calculations (1995CI02). Similar shell-model calculations of transverse scattering form factors for the 0, 1.74, and 5.16 MeV levels are reported in (1994BO04).

In (1995CI02), analyses that determined the r.m.s. radius of the ground-state charge distribution to be 2.58 ± 0.05 ± 0.05 fm are described. This value is consistent with the tabulated value of 2.45 ± 0.12 fm (1987DE43). In an appendix, B(E2) values derived from the longitudinal form factors (1995CI02, 1966SP02, 1976FA13, 1979AN08) are given for the 0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 5.92, and 6.03 MeV levels. The B(E2) value for the 4.77 MeV level is known to be very small and the longitudinal form factor appears to be dominated by the C0 multipole. The results of an analysis by the same method [by co-author D.J.M.; see (2004MIZX)] are listed in Table 10.28 preview 10.28 (in PDF or PS), together with similar analyses for other states for which the form factors appear to be dominated by a single multipole. The effects of including electron distortion, not taken into account in the transition strengths reported in the previous tabulation (1988AJ01), are significant.

The previous tabulation also included information on states at 8.07 and 8.9 MeV from (1979AN08) and at 10.79 and 11.56 MeV from (1976FA13). The C2 strength reported for the 8.07 MeV level, analyzed as a 2+ level, was such that the level should have been very strongly populated by inelastic pion scattering and this is not the case (1988ZE01). For the 8.9 MeV excitation, the contributions from the 2+; 1 and 3-; 1 members of the doublet near this energy cannot be separated. In the 11 MeV region, there is evidence for considerable M1 strength (1976FA13).

For reaction (b) see 10Be. For reactions (c) and (d) see (1984AJ01) and (1997JO07). See also the earlier references cited in (1988AJ01).

25. 10B(π, π')10B

The inelastic scattering of 162 MeV pions has been studied (1988ZE01) over the angular range 35° to 100° in the laboratory system and the data were analyzed with a model that incorporates shell-model wave functions into a distorted-wave impulse approximation formalism. Reduced transition probabilities were obtained for low-lying states. Higher states, or groups of unresolved states, at 7.0, 7.8, 8.07, 8.9, 9.7, 10.7, 11.5, and 12.8 MeV were studied.

26. 10B(n, n)10B

Angular distributions have been studied for En = 1.5 to 14.1 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)] and at 3.02 to 12.01 MeV (1986SAZR, 1987SAZX; n1 → n5), 8 to 14 MeV (1983DA22; n0) and 9.96 to 16.94 MeV (1986MU08; n0). Measurements were made by (1990SA24) for En from 3.02 MeV up to 12.01 MeV. See also the experimental study of (1988RE09) and the optical model analysis of (1996CH33). See also 11B in (1985AJ01, 1990AJ01) and (1984TO02).

27. (a) 10B(p, p)10B
(b) 10B(p, 2p)9Be Qm = -6.5859

Angular distributions have been measured for a number of energies between Ep = 3.0 and 800 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at 10 to 17 MeV (1986MU08; p0). Differential cross sections have been measured (2001CH78) from Ep = 0.5 - 3.3 MeV in 5° steps from 100°-170°. Cross sections and polarization observables for 200 MeV polarized protons were measured by (1992BA76; p0, p1). See also the Ep = 200 MeV measurements and analyses reported in (1991LE22). Microscopic model analyses are reported for Ep = 25, 30, 40 MeV by (2000DE61) and for Ep = 200 MeV by (1997DO01). Table 10.29 preview 10.29 (in PDF or PS) displays the states observed in this reaction. Inelastic scattering data were used to deduce the deformation parameters, βL. The γ-ray results are shown in Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS). See also (1979AJ01). For τm see Table 10.21 preview 10.21 (in PDF or PS) (1983VE03).

Axions may cause e+e- pairs in competition with γ-ray emission in an isoscalar M1 transition: a search for axions was undertaken in the case of the 3.59 → g.s. [2+ → 3+] transition. It was negative (1986DE25). A beam dump experiment and other attempts to observe axions are discussed in (1987HA1O). For reaction (b) at Ep = 1 GeV see (1985BE30, 1985DO16) and (1974AJ01). See also (1988KRZY), (1985KI1B, 1988KOZL; applied) and 11C in (1985AJ01, 1990AJ01).

28. 10B(d, d)10B

Angular distributions have been reported at Ed = 4 to 28 MeV: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). Observed deuteron groups are displayed in Table 10.29 preview 10.29 (in PDF or PS). The very low intensity of the group to 10B*(1.74) and the absence of the group to 10B*(5.16) is good evidence of their T = 1 character: see (1974AJ01). See also the cross section measurements at Ed = 13.6 MeV reported in (1991BE42).

29. 10B(t, t)10B

Angular distributions of elastically scattered tritons have been measured at Et = 1.5 to 3.3 MeV: see (1974AJ01).

30. 10B(3He, 3He)10B

Angular distributions have been measured at E(3He) = 4 to 46.1 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at 2.10 and 2.98 MeV (1987BA34; elastic). L = 2 gives a good fit of the distributions of 3He ions to 10B*(0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 6.03): derived βL are shown in Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS) of (1979AJ01). See also Table 10.29 preview 10.29 (in PDF or PS) here, 13N in (1986AJ01) and see the Strong-Absorption Model analysis for E(3He) = 41 MeV reported in (1987RA36).

31. (a) 10B(α, α)10B
(b) 10B(α, 2α)6Li Qm = -4.4610

Angular distributions have been measured for Eα = 5 to 56 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at 91.8 MeV (1985JA12; α0). Measurements of cross sections relative to Rutherford scattering at large angles for Eα = 1 - 3.3 MeV were reported by (1992MC03). Data for Eα = 1.5 - 10 MeV were compiled and reviewed for depth-profiling applications in (1991LE33). Reaction (b) has been studied at Eα = 24 and 700 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). See also (1983GO27, 1985SH1D; theor.).

32. (a) 10B(6Li, 6Li)10B
(b) 10B(7Li, 7Li)10B

Elastic-scattering angular distributions have been studied at E(6Li) = 5.8 and 30 MeV: see (1979AJ01). A model for calculating departures from Rutherford backscattering for Lithium targets is described in (1991BO48). For reaction (b), elastic scattering angular distributions were studied at E(7Li) = 24 MeV: see (1979AJ01). Differential cross section measurements at E(7Li) = 39 MeV were reported in (1988ET02).

33. (a) 10B(7Be, 7Be)10B
(b) 10B(9Be, 9Be)10B

Elastic scattering differential cross section measurements at E(7Be) = 84 MeV have been reported (1999AZ02, 2001AZ01, 2001GA19, 2001TR04). The results were used along with 10B(7Be, 8B) data to deduce asymptotic normalization coefficients for the virtual transitions 8B → 7Be + p and to calculate the astrophysical S factor and direct-capture rates for 7Be(p, γ)8B. See also the analysis in (2002GA11).

For reaction (b), the elastic angular distributions have been measured at E(10B) = 20.1 and 30.0 MeV (1983SR01). For yield and cross section measurements see (1983SR01, 1986CU02). See also the calculations of (1984IN03, 1986RO12).

34. (a) 10B(10B, 10B)10B
(b) 10B(11B, 11B)10B

Elastic angular distributions (reaction (a)) have been studied at E(10B) = 8, 13 and 21 MeV (see the references cited in (1979AJ01)) and at E(10B) = 4 - 15 MeV (1975DI08). These data were used by (2000RU05) to study the energy dependence of optical model parameters. For reaction (b) see the references cited in (1988AJ01). See also (2000RU05).

35. (a) 10B(12C, 12C)10B
(b) 10B(13C, 13C)10B

Elastic angular distributions have been measured at E(10B) = 18 and 100 MeV for reaction (a) [see (1979AJ01)] and at 18 - 46 MeV [see (1984AJ01)] and 42.5, 62.3 and 80.9 MeV for reaction (b) (1985MA10). For yield, cross section and fusion experiments see (1983DA20, 1983MA53, 1985MA10, 1988MA07) and (1984AJ01). For other references on these reactions, see (1988AJ01).

36. 10B(14N, 14N)10B

Angular distributions have been reported at E(10B) = 100 MeV and E(14N) = 73.9 and 93.6 MeV (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01), and at 38.1, 42.0 and 50 MeV (1988TA13). For fusion cross section studies see (1983DE26, 2001DI12) and the references cited in (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01, 1988AJ01).

37. (a) 10B(16O, 16O)10B
(b) 10B(17O, 17O)10B
(c) 10B(18O, 18O)10B

Elastic angular distributions (for reaction (a)) have been studied at E(10B) = 33.7 to 100 MeV and at E(16O) = 15 - 32.5 MeV (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01), at Ecm = 14.77, 16.15 and 18.65 MeV (1988KO10), and for reactions (a), (b) and (c) at E(16O) = 16 - 64 MeV (1994AN05). For elastic cross sections for reaction (c) at E(18O) = 20, 24 and 30.5 MeV, see (1974AJ01). For a study of the time scales for binary processes for the 16O + 10B system at Ecm = 17 - 25 MeV see (2002SU17). See also (2001DE50). For yield and fusion cross section measurements see (1993AN08, 1993AN15, 1994AN05) and earlier references cited in (1988AJ01).

38. (a) 10B(19F, 19F)10B
(b) 10B(20Ne, 20Ne)10B

The elastic scattering has been investigated for E(19F) = 20 and 24 MeV for reaction (a) and E(10B) = 65.9 MeV for reaction (b): see (1974AJ01, 1984AJ01).

39. (a) 10B(24Mg, 24Mg)10B
(b) 10B(25Mg, 25Mg)10B

The elastic scattering for both reactions has been studied at E(10B) = 87.4 MeV: see (1984AJ01). The elastic scattering for reaction (b) has been measured at E(10B) = 34 MeV by (1985WI18).

40. (a) 10B(27Al, 27Al)10B
(b) 10B(28Si, 28Si)10B
(c) 10B(30Si, 30Si)10B

The elastic scattering for all three reactions has been studied at E(10B) = 41.6 and ≈ 50 MeV [and also at 33.7 MeV for reaction (b)]: see (1984AJ01). See also (1984TE1A).

41. (a) 10B(39K, 39K)10B
(b) 10B(40Ca, 40Ca)10B

The elastic scattering has been studied at E(10B) = 44 MeV for reaction (a) (1985WI18) and at 46.6 MeV for reaction (b): see (1984AJ01).

42. 10C(β+)10B Qm = 3.6480

The half-life of 10C is 19.290 ± 0.012 sec (1990BA02): the decay is to 10B*(0.72, 1.74) with branching ratios of (98.53 ± 0.02)% (1979AJ01) and (1.4645 ± 0.0019)% [world average (1999FU04)], see (1991KR19, 1991NA01, 1995SA16, 1999FU04) for measurements since (1988AJ01): an upper limit for decay to 10B*(2.15), ≤ 8 × 10-4%, is given in (1979AJ01). The excitation energies of 10B*(0.72, 1.74) are 718.380 ± 0.011 keV and 1740.05 ± 0.04 keV, respectively, which were determined from de-excitation γ-rays with Eγ = 718.353 ± 0.010 keV and 1021.646 ± 0.014 keV (1988BA55, 1989BA28). See (2003SU04) for discussion of B(GT) values.

The 0+ → 0+ super-allowed β-decay branch for 10C decay to 10B*(1.74) is important for determining the Vud matrix element and for testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The Vud matrix element is determined by ft-values; for 10C, this depends on the 10C*(0, [0+]) → 10B*(1.74, [0+]) branching ratio, 1.4645 ± 0.0019 [Jπ in brackets], the 10C half-life (1990BA02), and the decay energy to the 10B*(1.74) state, 1907.86 ± 0.12 keV (1998BA83). The experimental ft value is 3037 ± 8, which yields log ft = 3.4825 ± 0.0014. Various corrections to the ft-values, to account for nuclear structure and isospin effects, are discussed in (1991RA09, 1992BA22, 1993CH06, 1994BA65, 1996SA09, 1998TOZQ, 2000BA52, 2000HAZU). After correction, the ft value is ≈ 3068.9 ± 8.5 (99FU04), which by itself satisfies the unitarity test of the CKM matrix. However, higher precision measurements are desirable since the satisfaction of CKM unitarity, based on all 0+ → 0+ decays, continues to be debated in the literature (2002HA47, 2002TO19, 2002WI09, 2003WI01).

43. 11B(γ, n)10B Qm = -11.454

The intensities of the transitions to 10B*(3.59, 5.16) [T = 0 and 1, respectively] depend on the region of the giant dipole resonance in 11B from which the decay takes place: it is suggested that the lower-energy region consists mainly of T = 1/2 states and the higher-energy region of T = 3/2 states: see 11B in (1980AJ01). See also 11B in (1985AJ01, 1990AJ01) and (1984AL22).

44. (a) 11B(p, d)10B Qm = -9.230
(b) 11B(p, p + n)10B Qm = -11.454

Angular distributions of deuteron groups have been measured at several energies in the range Ep = 17.7 to 154.8 MeV [see (1979AJ01)] and at 18.6 MeV (1985BE13; d0, d1). The population of the first five states of 10B and of 10B*(5.2, 6.0, 6.56, 7.5, 11.4 ± 0.2, 14.1 ± 0.2) is reported. Data at Ep = 33 MeV was used (1991AB04) in a test of Cohen-Kurath wave functions and intermediate coupling. For reaction (b) see (1985BE30, 1985BO05; 1 GeV). Cross sections σ(E) for both reactions (a) and (b) are calculated in a "quasiquantum multistep direct reaction" theory described in (1994SH21). See also references cited in (1988AJ01).

45. 11B(d, t)10B Qm = -5.197

Angular distributions have been measured at Ed = 11.8 MeV (t0 → t3; l = 1) [see (1974AJ01)] and at 18 MeV (1987GUZZ, 1988GUZW). A combined DWBA and dispersion-theory analysis of cross section data is described in (1995GU22). Vertex constants and spectroscopic factors were deduced.

46. (a) 11B(3He, α)10B Qm = 9.124
(b) 11B(3He, 2α)6Li Qm = 4.663

Reported levels are displayed in Table 10.30 preview 10.30 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured at a number of energies between E(3He) = 1.0 and 33 MeV [see (1974AJ01)] and at 23.4 MeV (1987VA1I; α0, α1). For the decay of observed states see Table 10.19 preview 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and Table 10.20 preview 10.20 (in PDF or PS).

The α - α angular correlations (reaction (b)) have been measured for the transitions via 10B*(5.92, 6.03, 6.13, 6.56, 7.00). The results are consistent with Jπ = 2+ and 4+ for 10B*(5.92, 6.03) and require Jπ = 3- for 10B*(6.13). There is substantial interference between levels of opposite parity for the α-particles due to 10B*(6.56, 7.00): the data are fitted by Jπ = 3+ for 10B*(7.00) and (3, 4)- for 10B*(6.56) [the 6Li(α, α) results then require Jπ = 4-]. See, however, reaction 16, and see (1974AJ01) for the references. See also (1988GOZB; theor.).

47. 11B(7Li, 8Li)10B Qm = -9.422

Angular distributions have been measured at E(7Li) = 34 MeV involving 10B*(0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15) and 8Lig.s. (as well as 8Li*(0.98) in the case of the 10Bg.s. transition) (1987CO16).

48. (a) 12C(γ, d)10B Qm = -25.1864
(b) 12C(γ, p + n)10B Qm = -27.4110

For reaction (a) see (1986SH1M) and 12C in (1990AJ01). Reaction (b) was studied at Eγ = 189 - 427 MeV (1987KA13), 83 - 133 MeV (1988DA16), 80 - 159 MeV (1993HA12), 300 MeV (1995CR04), 80 - 157 MeV (1995MC02), 150 - 400 MeV (1996HA16), 114 - 600 MeV (1996LA15), 250 - 600 MeV (1998HA01), 120 - 400 MeV (1998MA02), 120 - 150 MeV (1998YA05), 150 MeV (1999KH06) and 150 - 700 MeV (2000WA20). Measurements with polarized photons at energies Eγ = 160 - 350 MeV were reported by (1999FR12, 2001PO19). Analyses of data and theoretical calculations are described in (1989VO01, 1994RY02, 1998RY01, 1999IR01, 2002GR05). For earlier work see the references cited in (1988AJ01).

49. 12C(n, t)10B Qm = -18.9292

Cross section measurements at En = 40 - 56 keV for determining efficiency of neutron detectors were reported in (1994MO41). Calculated cross sections are tabulated in (1989BR05). See also (1985FR07, 1987FR16; En = 319 to 545 MeV) and (1986DO12).

50. 12C(π±, π±d)10B Qm = -25.1864

At Eπ+ = 180 MeV and Eπ- = 220 MeV, 10B*(0.72, 2.15) are populated: see (1984AJ01). At Eπ+ = 150 MeV momentum distributions of pions to unresolved states of 10B are reported by (1987HU13).

51. (a) 12C(p, 3He)10B Qm = -19.6929
(b) 12C(p, p + d)10B Qm = -25.1864

Angular distributions of 3He ions have been measured for Ep = 39.8, 51.9 and 185 MeV: see (1979AJ01). 10B*(0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15, 3.59, 4.77, 5.16, 5.92, 6.56, 7.50, 8.90) are populated. A calculation of 3He and α-particle multiplicities is described in (1987GA08). For reaction (b) see (1985DE17); Ep = 58 MeV; 10B*(0.72, 1.74)) and (1984AJ01). Calculations of cross sections for Ep = 58 MeV and 0.7 GeV are described in (1990LO18) and (1987ZH10), respectively. See also the references cited in (1988AJ01).

52. 12C(d, α)10B Qm = -1.3400

Alpha groups have been observed to most of the known states of 10B below Ex = 7.1 MeV: see Table 10.23 preview 10.23 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01). Angular distributions have been measured for Ed = 5.0 to 40 MeV: see (1979AJ01). Single-particle S-values are 1.5, 0.5, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.3, respectively, for 10B*(0, 0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 4.77). A study of the ms = 0 yield at Ed = 14.5 MeV (θ = 0°) leads to assignments of 3+, 2- and (3+, 4-) for 10B*(4.77, 5.11, 6.56). The population of the isospin-forbidden group to 10B*(1.74) [α2] has been studied with Ed up to 30 MeV: see 14N in (1986AJ01). See also (1984LOZZ).

53. 12C(α, 6Li)10B Qm = -23.7126

Angular distributions have been reported at Eα = 42 and 46 MeV: see (1979AJ01). At Eα = 65 MeV, an investigation of the 6Li breakup shows that 10B*(0, 0.72, 2.16, 3.57, 4.77, 5.2, 5.9, 6.0) are involved: see (1984AJ01). See also the cross section measurements at Eα = 33.8 MeV (1987GA20) and at Eα = 90 MeV (1991GL03).

54. 12C(7Li, 9Be)10B Qm = -8.4905

At E(7Li) = 78 MeV angular distributions have been measured to 10B*(0, 2.15) (1986GLZV).

55. (a) 12C(12C, 14N)10B Qm = -14.9141
(b) 12C(14N, 16O)10B Qm = -4.4503

Angular distributions (reaction (a)) involving 10B*(0, 0.7) have been studied at E(12C) = 49.0 to 75.5 and 93.8 MeV. Angular distributions (reaction (b)) involving 10B*(0, 0.72, 2.15, 3.59) have been measured at E(14N) = 53 MeV and 78.8 MeV (not to 10B*(3.59)): see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01) for references. See also (1986AR04, 1986CR1A, 1986MOZV).

56. 13C(p, α)10B Qm = -4.0616

Differential cross sections were measured (1988AB11) at Ep = 18 - 45 MeV. Measurements at Ep = 30.95 MeV were reported by (1988BA30). Known p-shell levels at 0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15, 3.59, 4.77, 5.16, 5.92, 6.03 and 7.47 MeV were excited (1988AB11, 1988BA30). Analyses in both these studies used DWBA direct pickup calculations using a triton cluster form factor and the shell model calculations of (1975KU01). Spectroscopic factors were deduced. For earlier work at Ep = 5.8 - 18 MeV and 43.7 and 50.5 MeV see (1979AJ01). See also references cited in (1988AJ01).

57. 14N(p, p + α)10B Qm = -11.6122

See (1986VDZY; Ep = 50 MeV). See also (1986GO28; theor.).

58. 14N(d, 6Li)10B Qm = -10.1384

At Ed = 80 MeV angular distributions are reported to 10B*(0, 0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 4.8, 6.04, 7.05, 8.68): see (1979OE01).

59. 16O(9Be, 15N)10B Qm = -5.5415

See (1985WI18).

60. (a) natAg(14N, α + 6Li)X
(b) natAg(14N, p + 9Be)X

The breakup of 10B was studied (1989NA03, 1992NA01) in an experiment with an E/A = 35 MeV 14N beam incident on natAg. In the breakup of 10B into α + 6Li the 4.77 MeV 3+ and 6.56 MeV 4- states were observed together with unresolved groups of states near 5.1, 6.0, and 7.0 MeV. In the 9Be + p channel peaks centered near 6.9, 7.5, and 8.9 MeV were observed. Similar results have been obtained for an 36Ar beam incident on 197Au (1992ZH08).