(See Energy Level Diagrams for 10C)
GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10C published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 10C located on our website at: (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/10c.shtml).
Mass of 10C: The threshold energy for the 10B(p, n)10C reaction is 4877.03 ± 0.13 keV: then Q0 = -4430.30 ± 0.12 keV (1998BA83). Using the (2003AU03) masses for 10B, p and n, the atomic mass excess is then 15698.8 ± 0.4 keV. However, we adopt the (2003AU03) value: 15698.6 ± 0.4 keV. See also unpublished work on 12C(p, t)10C that is quoted in (1984AJ01).
B(E2)(↓) for 10C*(3.35) = 12.4 ± 2.0 e2 · fm4 (1968FI09).
The half-life of 10C is 19.290 ± 0.012 sec (1990BA02), which is the average of 19280 ± 20 msec (1974AZ01), 19270 ± 80 msec (1963BA52), 19300 ± 41 msec (1990BA02) and 19294 ± 16 msec (1990BA02). The nucleus 10C decays to 10B*(0.7, 1.7): the branching ratios are (98.53 ± 0.02)% (1979AJ01) and (1.4645 ± 0.0019)% (1999FU04), respectively. See also the discussion of reaction 42 in 10B.
By measuring the relative polarization of positrons emitted from 10C β-decay (pure GT) and 14O (pure Fermi), ratio = 0.9996 ± 0.0036 (1988GI02, 1990CA41, 1991CA12), constraints on the scalar and tensor admixtures to the dominant vector and axial vector currents were determined as, |CS/CV - CT/CA| = 0.001 ± 0.009.
Elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections for 10C*(0, 3.35) were measured at E(10C) = 45.3 MeV/A (2003JO09). The data is best fit with |Mn|/|Mp| = 0.71 which gives |Mn| = 5.51 ± 1.07 fm2 when compared with the known value |Mp| = 7.87 ± 0.64 fm2, which is derived from B(E2) = 62 ± 10 e2 · fm4.
The π- production rates for various projectile and target combinations, including 6Li + 4He, were measured at 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon in (1993CH35). In general the observed π- production cross section falls off exponentially with increasing π- energy. In some cases the angular distributions show a slight dependence on target and projectile mass.
Tetraneutron (n4) production has been studied in this and in other reactions involving 10C at E(7Li) = 82 MeV (1987ALZG): it was not observed. However, evidence that is consistent with the existence of n4 is observed in the breakup of 14Be (2002MA21).
Angular distributions of π- groups have been measured at Ep = 185 MeV (to 10C*(0, 3.35, 5.28, 6.63)), at 200 MeV (g.s.), at 800 MeV (to 10C*(0, 3.35, 5.3, 6.6)) [see (1984AJ01)] and at Epol. p = 650 MeV (1986HO23; 10C*(0, 3.35); also Ay). Ay measurements have also been reported at Epol. p = 200 to 250 MeV: see (1984AJ01). At Ep = 800 MeV, the angular distributions of produced pions were measured for Be and C targets (1988BA58); they observed σ(0°)/σ(20°) ≈ 6.
In (1987SI18), calculations of polarization observables for 10B(π+, π0) at 70 MeV and 10B(π+, η) at 460 MeV suggest that new measurements could provide insight into the single-charge-exchange reaction mechanism.
Level parameters for 10C*(3.35) are Ex = 3352.7 ± 1.5 keV, τm = 155 ± 25 fsec, Γγ = 4.25 ± 0.69 meV. [See (1969PA09) and other references cited in (1974AJ01).] Angular distributions have been measured for the n0 and n1 groups and for the neutrons to 10C*(5.2 ± 0.3) at Ep = 30 and 50 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)] and for the n0 and n1 groups at Ep = 14.0, 14.3 and 14.6 MeV (1985SC08) and 15.8 and 18.6 MeV (1985GU1C).
At Epol. p = 186 MeV, angular distributions of neutrons were measured for θ = 0° - 50° (1993WA06). Levels were observed at 0 [0+], 3.35 [2+], 5.3 [2+], 6.6, ≈ 9, ≈ 10, and 16.5 MeV [(2+)] [Jπ in brackets]. For Ex = 3.35 MeV, B(GT) = 0.03 and for 5.3 MeV, B(GT) = 0.68 ± 0.02. A multipole decomposition analysis suggests additional states at 17.2 and 20.2 with Jπ = 2- or 1-, respectively. Higher-lying resonances that were excited with Ep = 186 MeV protons, the Giant-Dipole Resonance (ΔL = 1, ΔS = 0) and the Giant Spin Dipole Resonance (ΔL = 1, ΔS = 1), are discussed in (1994RA23, 1994WA22, 1995YA12). In their analysis a broad peak from quasi-free scattering, was estimated phenomenologically and subtracted from the excitation spectrum; a multipole decomposition analysis of the remaining structure indicated a prominent ΔL = 1 resonance around Ex = 17 - 20 MeV with a possible mixture of 2-, 1- and 2+ states (analogous to 10B*(18.43, 18.8, 19.3, 20.1) and a small peak at Ex = 24 MeV (possible analog of the 10B GDR). Data from Ep = 1 GeV were analyzed to develop a formalism for charge-exchange processes involving pion and Δ-isobar excitations (1994GA49).
The threshold value for 10B(p, n) was measured by (1989BA28); a subsequent analysis of that data, by (1998BA83), rigorously evaluated the proton beam energy spread (740 eV), non-uniform energy losses for all protons, and energy losses induced by ionizing target atoms prior to capture. The threshold value was determined to be Ethresh. = 4877.30 ± 0.13 keV, which yields Q0 = 4430.30 ± 0.12 keV for 10B(p, n).
At Ep = 7 and 9 MeV, thick target neutron and γ-ray yields and relative ratios are measured for a compilation of proton-induced radiations that provide elemental analysis (1987RA23). Neutron production rates were measured for Ecm = 5.9 MeV (1988CHZN). The 10B(p, n) cross section was measured at Ep = 4.8 - 30 MeV to evaluate the feasibility of producing isotopically enriched 10CO2 for use in PET imaging (2000AL06).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(3He) = 14 MeV and 217 MeV: see (1979AJ01). The latter [to 10C*(0, 3.35, 5.6)] have been compared with microscopic calculations using a central + tensor interaction [Jπ = 0+, 2+, 2+, respectively]. Structures have been reported at Ex = 5.22 ± 0.04 [Γ = 225 ± 45 keV], 5.38 ± 0.07 [300 ± 60 keV] and 6.580 ± 0.020 MeV [190 ± 35 keV].
The production of radioactive isotopes from 100 and 190 GeV muons incident on a 12C target was measured by (2000HA33) to estimate the μ-induced backgrounds in large volume scintillator detector experiments.
Angular distributions have been reported at Ep = 30.0 to 54.1 MeV and at 80 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)]. L = 0, 2 and 2 to 10C*(0, 3.35, 5.28) thus leading to 0+, 2+ and 2+, respectively, for these states [but note that the "5.28 MeV" state is certainly unresolved]: see reaction 9 and 10.31 (in PDF or PS). 10C*(6.6) is also populated. Two measurements of the excitation energy of 10C*(3.4) are 3353.5 ± 1.0 keV and 3354.3 ± 1.1 keV: see (1984AJ01) [based on Qm]. See also (1987KW01; theor.).
At E(3He) = 70.3 MeV the angular distributions of the 6He ions corresponding to the population of 10C*(0, 3.35) have been measured. The group to 10C*(3.35) is much more intense than the ground-state group: see (1979AJ01).
Spallation reaction rates for incident protons on 16O and 12C targets with Ep ≈ 50 - 250 MeV were calculated by (1999CH50) using the GNASH code. These reaction rates are important for estimating the secondary radiation induced in medical proton therapy treatment.
Total interaction cross sections of E(10C) = 730 MeV/A projectiles were measured on 9Be, natC and 27Al targets (1996OZ01). The deduced cross sections, σ = 752 ± 13, 795 ± 12 and 1171 ± 20 mb, respectively, indicate Rrms(10C) = 2.27 ± 0.03 fm.