
^{13}C (1986AJ01)(See Energy Level Diagrams for ^{13}C) GENERAL: See also (1981AJ01) and Table 13.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1982KU1B, 1983JA09, 1983SH38, 1983VA31, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A). Special states: (1980RI06, 1981KO1Q, 1981LI19, 1983AU1B, 1983GO1R, 1983MI08, 1983VA31, 1984GO1M, 1984RO05, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1985HA1J, 1985WE02). Electromagnetic transitions: (1980BA54, 1980RI06, 1981KN06, 1981KO1Q, 1981LI19, 1982AW02, 1983AD1B, 1983MI08, 1984KU07, 1984MA67, 1984MO1D, 1984SC09). Astrophsical questions: (1980AU1D, 1980GA1Q, 1980WA1M, 1981CR1B, 1981GU1D, 1981LA1L, 1981SC1M, 1981SN1B, 1981WA1N, 1981WA1Q, 1981WI1G, 1982IB1B, 1982JO1B, 1982NO1D, 1983AL23, 1983BO1F, 1983IB1A, 1983SW1A, 1984HA1R, 1984HA1Z, 1984LA1J, 1984LI1L, 1984TR1C, 1984WE1C, 1985GU1A). Applied work: (1980SE1E, 1981DE2B, 1981FR1D, 1982FR1L, 1982ST1C, 1982ZA1C, 1983AM1A, 1983DO1H, 1983GI1E, 1983JU1B, 1983SC1B, 1983SU1C, 1984AR1C, 1984BO1T, 1984DE1T, 1984DO1B, 1984GI1K, 1984GI1M, 1984HO1E, 1984LE1G, 1984NA1R, 1984RA1J, 1984SH2A, 1984SU1H, 1984SU1J, 1985AR1N). Complex reactions involving ^{13}C: (1980GR10, 1980RI06, 1981FR02, 1981GR08, 1981ME13, 1981OL1C, 1982LY1A, 1982TA02, 1983CH23, 1983EN04, 1983FR1A, 1983GA01, 1983JA05, 1983MA06, 1983OL1A, 1983SA06, 1983VO04, 1983WI1A, 1984GR08, 1984HI1A, 1984HO23, 1984VO06, 1985GU1A, 1985MO08, 1985ST1J, 1985UT1B). Muon and neutrino capture and reactions: (1981MU1E, 1981PH1C, 1982SC11, 1982WE02, 1983GM1A, 1984AA1B, 1984KO1U, 1985MI1P). Pion capture and reactions (See also reactions 8, 28 and 44): (1978MO01, 1979BA16, 1979ME2A, 1980BA27, 1980BU15, 1980DE1X, 1980EI01, 1980GO1M, 1980LE17, 1981AU1C, 1981BA1J, 1981CR1A, 1981FE2A, 1981GI1A, 1981GO1G, 1981HAZU, 1981HI06, 1981KE1A, 1981LI02, 1981LI1B, 1981LO1B, 1981MO11, 1981NI1B, 1981OS04, 1981PE1C, 1981PO10, 1981SI1D, 1981WH01, 1982AS05, 1982BE51, 1982BE1D, 1982CH16, 1982CO07, 1982CO1Z, 1982DE1K, 1982DO01, 1982DO02, 1982DO10, 1982FE1A, 1982FR02, 1982GI1B, 1982GR1F, 1982GR1K, 1982HO1C, 1982IN1A, 1982IQ1A, 1982KE1D, 1982KI1D, 1982LE26, 1982LI1K, 1982LO1K, 1982MA1F, 1982MA1U, 1982NA1K, 1982SO1B, 1982THZZ, 1982WA1G, 1983CH54, 1983GE12, 1983GM1A, 1983KA19, 1983LI1M, 1983LI1Q, 1983LI15, 1983LI1X, 1983MA16, 1983MA40, 1983MI06, 1983PE14, 1983SH01, 1983THZZ, 1983TI1A, 1983TO17, 1983TR1J, 1983ZE1C, 1984AN11, 1984BA2Y, 1984COZY, 1984GO1F, 1984GR27, 1984KE02, 1984LI1U, 1984MI1K, 1984SA1H, 1984ST16, 1984TI02). Kaon capture and reactions: (1979LI1A, 1981BA1H, 1981DA1C, 1981MA27, 1981MI1F, 1982BA1R, 1982BE1U, 1982DO1C, 1982DO1M, 1982MA1Y, 1982ZH1C, 1983AU1A, 1983FE07, 1983LI1Q, 1983PO1D, 1984GI1E, 1984MI1C, 1984SI13). Antiproton reactions: (1981YA1C). Hypernuclei: (1980IW1A, 1980ZH1C, 1981AU05, 1981DA1C, 1981MA27, 1981MI1A, 1981MI1F, 1981RA18, 1981WA1J, 1981ZH1B, 1982BE1U, 1982DO1C, 1982DO1M, 1982GR1P, 1982JO1C, 1982KA1U, 1982KA1D, 1982MA1Y, 1982PI1J, 1982RA1L, 1982SH1P, 1982ZH1C, 1983AU1A, 1983BA2K, 1983CH1T, 1983DO1B, 1983FE07, 1983GA17, 1983JO1E, 1983KO1V, 1983KO1D, 1983LI1Q, 1983MA1F, 1983PO1D, 1983SH1E, 1984AS1D, 1984BA2Y, 1984BA1N, 1984BO1A, 1984CH1G, 1984DA03, 1984DA1D, 1984MI1C, 1984SH1J, 1985AH1A, 1985BA2N). Other topics: (1979LI1A, 1980BA54, 1981AU05, 1981PL03, 1982AW02, 1982HU1D, 1982LU02, 1982NG01, 1983CO09, 1983GO1R, 1983GU09, 1984PO11). Ground state of ^{13}C: (1980BA54, 1981AV02, 1982LO13, 1982NG01, 1983AD1B, 1983ANZQ, 1983AU1A, 1983AU1B, 1983BU07, 1983CO09, 1983VA31, 1984FR13, 1984KA25, 1984KU07, 1984WE04, 1985HA18, 1985FA01).
< r^{2} >^{1/2} = 2.4795 (20) fm (1982SC11). See also (1984AA1B). Natural abundance: (1.10 ± 0.03)% (1984DE53). The neutron rms radius is 2.35 (3) fm (1979JO08). See also (1981AJ01). ^{13}C*(3.85):g is negative (1976DY05). From the γray due to the transition ^{13}C*(3.85 → 3.68), ΔE_{x} = 169.356 ± 0.020 keV (1984SC09). See, however, footnote ^{c} in Table 13.11 (in PDF or PS).
The yield curves for d_{0}(E(^{6}Li) = 4 to 14 MeV), t_{0}(E(^{7}Li) = 5 to 14 MeV) and α_{0}(E(^{6}Li) = 4 to 14 MeV) show broad, uncorrelated structures. Energyaveraged differential cross sections are also reported for a number of ^{12}B, ^{11}B and ^{10}B states. Total crosssection measurements have been measured for E(^{7}Li) = 3.8 to 6.0 MeV for p_{0} → p_{2}, p_{3+4}, p_{5}; d_{0} → d_{3}, d_{4+5}, d_{6}; t_{0} → t_{2}; and α_{0}: the total cross sections generally increase smoothly with energy without showing any structure: see (1981AJ01). For reaction (b) see (1981NOZW). See also (1983KAZF).
Resonances for n_{0} and n_{1}, for γrays from ^{12}C*(4.4, 12.7, 15.1) and resonances in the total neutron cross section are given in Table 13.7 (in PDF or PS). In addition the yield of neutrons to ^{12}C*(7.65, 9.64) has been measured in the range E_{α} = 2.9  6.4 MeV. The n_{0} and n_{1} excitation functions exhibit weak resonance anomalies at E_{α} = 6.44 MeV corresponding to the J^{π} = 3/2^{}, T = 3/2 state at E_{x} = 15.11 MeV: see Tables 13.6 (in PDF or PS) and 13.7 (in PDF or PS) (1978HI06). The thicktarget yield of neutrons has been measured for E_{α} = 3.0 to 9.0 MeV by (1979BA48). Polarization measurements have been reported for E_{α} to 100 MeV: see (1981AJ01). Reaction (b) has been studied at a number of energies for E_{α} = 17 to 44 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and at E_{α} = 19.5 to 32.1 MeV (1981AN16). See also (1982WE16; applied).
Excitation curves have been measured for E_{α} = 15 to 27.5 MeV for reaction (a) [involving d_{0}, d_{1} and at the higher energies d_{2}, d_{3}, d_{4+5}, d_{6}] and at 26.0 to 27.5 MeV for reaction (b) [t_{0}, t_{1}, t_{3}]: no structures are observed. See (1981AJ01).
A number of excitation functions have been measured for elastically scattered αparticles for E_{α} = 1.4 to 20 MeV: these show considerable resonance structure with the variations being most prominent below 10 MeV but persisting up to 20 MeV. The parameters resulting from a best fit of the excitation functions are displayed in Table 13.8 (in PDF or PS): see the footnotes to that table for a summary of the most important caveats. A weak resonance is observed in the α_{0} yield at E_{α} = 6.44 MeV corresponding to the excitation of the first T = 3/2 state at E_{x} = 15.11 MeV: see Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS) for the parameters of that state (1978HI06). For inclusive cross sections see (1985AB02). See also (1981FR1T, 1985SR01; theor.).
A number of ^{13}C states have been studied at E(^{6}Li) = 23.8 MeV: see (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions for t_{0}, t_{1}, t_{2+3}, t_{4} are reported at E(^{7}Li) = 5.6 to 6.2 MeV: see (1976AJ04).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{12}C) = 12 and 15 MeV and at E(^{9}Be) = 20 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and at E(^{12}C) = 10.5, 12.0 and 13.5 MeV (1982TA21; ^{13}C_{g.s.}). In the earlier work the neutron spectroscopic factors for the first four states of ^{13}C are 1.15, 0.95, 0.20, 1.02. At E(^{9}Be) = 50 MeV several higher states are also populated. For yield measurements see (1981AJ01) and (1982HU06, 1982TA21). See also (1983DEZW; theor.).
At E(^{3}He) = 260 and 280 MeV ^{13}C_{g.s.} and an unresolved group at E_{x} ≈ 3.6 MeV are observed. The cross section for this reaction at θ_{lab} = 20^{°} has been measured (1984WI06).
Yields have been measured for E_{t} = 0.5 to 2.0 MeV: there is no evidence of resonance behavior (1981AJ01). The yield of protons for E_{t} = 3 to 12 MeV shows a structure at E_{t} = 5.4 MeV (Γ ≈ 1 MeV) which may be connected with a state at ≈ 28 MeV (1984GUZY). See also (1980BO1T; theor.).
Angular distributions of p_{0} have been measured at many energies up to E_{α} = 30.4 MeV [see (1970AJ04)] and at 31.2 MeV (1984KO1Q; also p_{1+2+3}), and for p_{1} at E_{α} = 2.58 to 3.06 MeV (1983CS03). For γdecay measurements see Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS) (1980WA24). See also ^{14}N.
Comparisons of the relative intensities of the ^{3}He groups in this reaction and of the triton groups in the mirror reaction (see reaction 7 in ^{13}N) at E(^{6}Li) = 18 MeV suggest that the following states are analogs: 6.86  6.36, 7.49  7.16, 9.50  9.00, 9.90  9.48, (10.82 + 10.75)  (10.36 + 10.36) [the first (set of) E_{x} is in ^{13}C, the second in ^{13}N]: see (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{7}Li) = 5.20 MeV for the α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3} and α_{4} groups: see (1981AJ01).
At E(^{10}B) = 100 MeV angular distributions are reported for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.5, 11.8): see (1981AJ01).
The 90^{°} γ_{0} excitation curve measured for E_{d} = 1.0 to 12.0 MeV shows resonant structure at E_{d} = 2.0 ± 0.1 and 4.0 ± 0.1 MeV, Γ ≈ 0.6 and ≈ 1 MeV, corresponding to states at E_{x} = 20.4 and 22.1 MeV: see Table 13.9 (in PDF or PS). The results are consistent with the hypothesis of the isospin splitting of the giant dipole resonance in ^{13}C (1981KA16). See also (1981AJ01, 1984WO05).
The yield of neutrons and 15.1 MeV γrays has been measured in the range E_{d} = 0.2 to 11 MeV: see Table 13.9 (in PDF or PS). For polarization measurements see (1981AJ01). The thicktarget yield in reaction (b) has been measured for E_{d} = 7.00 to 16.01 MeV (1981AN16). See also (1981NO1G; applied.).
The results from the measurements of the proton and γray yields are not consistent: see reaction 19 and Table 13.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1981AJ01). An activation analysis is reported by (1984GUZY) for E_{d} = 3 to 12 MeV. See also (1980HU1D, 1981HU1G). For reaction (b) see (1981AJ01).
At low energies the excitation functions for α_{0} and α_{1} increase monotonically: see (1970AJ04). Then at E_{d} = 1.85 MeV a pronounced resonance is observed in the α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2} and α_{3} yields: see Table 13.9 (in PDF or PS). Some gross structure is also observed in these yields for E_{d} = 1.0 to 3.2 MeV: see (1981AJ01). See also ^{9}Be in (1984AJ01).
Levels derived from proton groups are displayed in Table 13.11 (in PDF or PS) of (1981AJ01). [The only level parameters included in the values of Table 13.4 (in PDF or PS) are E_{x} = 7500 ± 12 keV and Γ_{c.m.} < 5, 70 ± 10 and 150 ± 30 keV for ^{13}C*(7.49, 7.69, 8.86).] The neutron decay of ^{13}C*(6.86, 9.90, 11.75) are to ^{12}C_{g.s.} (99 ± 9)% and (100 ± 20)% for the first two states, and to ^{12}C*(0, 4.4) (67 ± 16)% and (33 ± 8)% for the third (1973AD02). The decay parameters for the first T = 3/2 state, ^{13}C*(15.11), are shown in Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS). The reduced asymmetries B(^{13}C)/B(^{13}N)  1 are 0.07 ± 0.13, 0.82^{+1.2}_{0.6}, ≥ 0.83 ± 0.29 and 0.04 ± 0.14 for the γ_{0}(M1), γ_{0}(E2), γ_{1}(E1) and γ_{2}(M1) transitions. Changes in the wave functions due to binding energy differences in ^{13}C and ^{13}N do not account for the observed asymmetry of the E1 decays of the first excited states in ^{13}C and ^{13}N (1977MA16): see Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS). See, however, (1980BA54).
Angular distributions of the d_{0} group have been measured at E_{α} = 15.1 to 25.2 MeV [see (1981AJ01)], at 29.5 MeV (1983VA28) and at 31.2 MeV (1984KO1Q; also d_{1+2+3}). See also (1983BE1Q; theor.).
Angular distributions have been reported at E(^{6}Li) = 4.72 MeV for α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3}, α_{4}, α_{5+6+7}: see (1981AJ01).
See ^{12}C in (1985AJ01) and (1984CL09; theor.).
The thermal capture cross section is 3.53 ± 0.07 mb (1982JU01). See also (1981PR04, 1982MU14). The capture is (67.47 ± 0.92)%, (0.16 ± 0.01)% and (32.36 ± 0.44)% via ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68) (1982MU14). (1982JU01) report (68.6 ± 0.9)% and (31.0 ± 0.4)% via ^{13}C*(0, 3.68). (1981VA1P; prelim.) find recoilcorrected C → 0, C → 3.68 and 3.68 → 0 energies of 4946.397 ± 0.031, 1261.854 ± 0.006 and 3684.516 ± 0.030 keV. Folding in the (1980WA24) value for 3.85 → 0 (see Table 13.11 (in PDF or PS)) leads to weighted mean adjusted energies for these three transitions of 4946.362 ± 0.021, 1261.855 ± 0.006 and 3684.507 ± 0.019 keV [E.K. Warburton, private communication]. Other recent E_{γ} measurements of groundstate transitions are 3089.3 ± 0.3 and 3684.6 ± 0.1 keV (1982MU14; see also for cascade γrays). The branching ratios for the decay of ^{13}C*(3.68) to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09) are (99.3 ± 2.0)% and (0.74 ± 0.05)%, respectively (1982MU14). (1984WO05) have determined the angular distributions and analyzing powers of γ_{0} for E_{n} = 12.0 to 18.8 MeV. The data were used to analyze results from the ^{13}C(γ, n_{0})^{12}C reaction. These can be understood in terms of two doorway states at E_{x} = 21.1 ± 0.6 and 20.52 ± 0.07 MeV with Γ = 4.2 ± 0.4 and 0.51 ± 0.07 MeV, respectively (1984WO05). See also (1981AJ01) for the earlier work, (1981MUZQ, 1983SH2K) and (1983HO17, 1985HO1M; theor.).
The coherent scattering length (thermal, bound) a_{coh} = 6.6535 ± 0.0014 fm; σ_{scatt} = 4.7456 ± 0.0020 b (1979KO26). Total cross sections have been measured in the range 1 keV to 273 GeV/c [see (1981AJ01)] and at E_{n} = 24 keV (1983AI01; isotopic C), 0.509, 1.024 and 2.003 MeV (1982PO05; to ± (0.2  0.4)%), 2.5 to 40 MeV (1979KEZU and R.B. Schwartz, private communication; isotopic C; to ± (1  3)%) and 200 to 600 MeV (1980FR1K; prelim.). Differential cross sections are reported to the 4.4 MeV γray to E_{n} ≈ 200 MeV and for the 15.1 MeV γray to E_{n} = 36 MeV (1985WE1D; prelim.). Integrated cross sections for n_{1} and n_{2} are reported at E_{n} = 14.7 MeV (1981GU12). Total nonelastic cross sections have been measured at E_{n} = 40.3 and 50.4 MeV (1981ZA03). See also (1983CI1E) and see (1981AJ01) for the earlier work. (1983DA22) report elastic differential cross sections for E_{n} = 9 to 15 MeV for isotopic carbon and derive predictions for σ_{R} and σ_{T}. Polarization measurements have been reported for E_{n} = 1.5 to 15.9 MeV [see (1976AJ04, 1981AJ01)] and at E_{n} = 8.9 to 14.9 MeV (1983WO02; n_{0}, n_{1}) and 16.34 MeV (1984BE1X; n_{0}), and at E_{n} = 15.85 MeV (1980TH07; n_{0}, n_{1}) and 15.95 MeV (1981TO1E; n_{0}). See also (1983ANZY). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 13.10 (in PDF or PS) here, and in Table 13.13 (in PDF or PS) in (1981AJ01) [the latter for (n, n'γ_{4.4})]. In Table 13.10 (in PDF or PS) the newer work comes from phaseshift analyses (σ(θ) and analyzing power) in the range E_{n} = 7.0 to 12.0 MeV by (1983TO19, 1985TO02). A multilevelmultichannel Rmatrix analysis is also reported by (1982KN02). For reaction (c) see (1983AN02, 1984BR19) and (1984HA48). See also ^{12}C in (1985AJ01) and (1980SA34, 1980WE1F, 1982GOZZ, 1984MA2D), (1979CO1B, 1982DI1E, 1983AF01, 1983HA1U, 1985BA2R; applied), (1980LI1M, 1981IN1B, 1981MUZQ, 1981WA1G, 1982FU1F, 1982HA1A, 1983GO1H, 1983SH2K, 1985HO1J) and (1979OL04, 1979ZH1B, 1980DM1A, 1980RI05, 1981DM1A, 1981FL04, 1981SH1A, 1982AZ01, 1982PL1A, 1983HO17, 1983KO44, 1983OL04, 1985MA1U; theor.).
Excitation functions for E_{n} = 22.8 to 33.6 MeV are reported by (1981AN16). See also (1981AJ01), (1981WEZZ) and (1979CO1B; applied).
The cross section exhibits a weak resonance corresponding to E_{x} ≈ 20.5 MeV and a stronger structure at E_{x} ≈ 21.5 MeV: see (1976AJ04). Polarization measurements are reported at E_{n} = 50 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and 18 MeV (1982DE16). For proton emission at E_{n} ≈ 545 MeV see (1985FR07). See also ^{12}B in (1985AJ01), (1983SU07), (1983SH2K) and (1981OL1B; theor.).
For deuteron and triton emission at E_{n} ≈ 545 MeV see (1985FR07). See also (1983SU07) and (1981AJ01, 1983SH2K).
The cross section for the α_{0} group shows a broad structure at E_{n} ≈ 8 MeV: see (1981AJ01). For cross sections for α_{0} and total αemission at E_{n} = 14.1 MeV see (1984HA48). See also (1982KN02) in reaction 23, (1983SU07) and (1983SH2K).
At E_{p} = 156.4 to 200 MeV angular distributions are reported to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 6.86, 9.5). The energy dependence of the angular distributions and of the cross sections are different for the singleparticle states [^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.85)] and the 2p2h states [^{13}C*(3.68, 6.86, 9.5)] (1981SO04). At E_{p} = 200 to 250 MeV the analyzingpower angular distributions for ^{13}C*(0, 3.09 + 3.68 + 3.85, 6.86 + 7.50, 9.50 + 9.90) are found to be energy dependent (1982LO03). Angular distributions have also been measured at E_{p} = 147 to 159 MeV (1981SJ02) and E_{p} = 185 MeV [see (1981AJ01)], 200 MeV (1980HO20; to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85)) and 200 to 250 MeV (1982LO03, 1984LO13; to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09 + 3.68 + 3.85) and A_{y}). Polarization measurements have also been reported at E_{p} = 147 to 159 MeV (1981SJ02; ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68 + 3.85) and 170, 183 and 190 MeV (1982GRZY). See (1981AJ01) for the earlier work. See also (1980SO05, 1981NAZY, 1982GR1M), (1983VI01) and the "General" section here.
Measurements of proton groups and γrays are summarized in Table 13.11 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been studied at many energies to E_{d} = 80.2 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and more recently in the range E_{d} = 0.56 to 2.5 MeV (1980HA1X; p_{0} → 3), 17.7 MeV (1984PE24; to ^{13}C*(9.50)) and at E_{d} = 16 MeV to ^{13}C*(3.09) [J^{π} = 1/2^{+}] and to (^{12}C + n) with zero relative energy (1983WI1D) [the two angular distributions are very similar] as well as at E_{d} = 56 MeV (1984HA26; p_{0} → p_{3}). See also (1982SA29) and ^{14}N. (1981RU04) determine g = 0.558 ± 0.015 and τ_{m} = 12.2 ± 0.4 psec for ^{13}C*(3.85). For other τ_{m} measurements see Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS), and for γdecay see Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS). For reaction (b) see (1981AJ01). For a fragmentation study at 9.1 GeV/c see (1985AB1J). See also ^{14}N, (1983JI04, 1981OZ1A), (1981OS1H) and (1980BA54, 1982GO05, 1982TA19, 1982TH02, 1982TH06; theor.).
See (1981AJ01).
See (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions of the ^{3}He particles to the first three states of ^{13}C have been measured in the range E_{α} = 56 to 139 MeV. The groundstate distributions in this, and in the mirror reaction ^{12}C(α, t)^{13}N, have also been compared: see (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions at E(^{7}Li) = 48 MeV to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85) have been analyzed and yield spectroscopic factors of 0.80, 0.44, 0.17 and 0.74, respectively: see (1981AJ01). An angular distribution and TAP measurements are reported at E(pol. ^{7}Li) = 21.1 MeV (1984MO06). See also (1980BA54; theor.).
Excitation curves involving ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68 + 3.85) have been studied by (1983JA09). See also (1980HU1E) and (1983KA17; theor.).
Angular distributions have been reported at E(^{12}C) = 93.8 MeV [to ^{13}C*(0, 3.85)] [see (1981AJ01)] and at 72.5 MeV to ^{13}C_{g.s.} (1981CH1R).
Angular distributions have been reported in the range E(^{14}N) = 28 to 154.8 MeV involving ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.85, 7.3 ± 0.3): see (1981AJ01). For a study of fragmentation at E(^{14}N) = 48 MeV, see (1983QU02). See also (1980BA54, 1980IZ1B, 1980TA1K, 1983OS08; theor.).
See (1981AJ01).
See (1981AJ01).
See ^{13}B and Table 13.2 (in PDF or PS).
The main features of the cross section is a sharp peak corresponding to the T = 3/2 state ^{13}C*(15.11)[Γ_{γ0} = 19.7 ± 2.0 eV], the broad pigmy resonance at E_{x} = 13 MeV [on which peaks are superimposed at E_{x} = 11.0, 13.8, 16.5 and 17.8 MeV] and the giant resonance at E_{x} = 24 MeV (σ_{max} = 9.5 mb) [surrounded by shoulder resonances at E_{x} = 20.8 and ≈ 30 MeV, both of which appear to decay substantially to highly excited states of ^{12}C]. There is also some evidence for a weak resonance at ≈ 37 MeV superimposed on the highenergy tail of the GDR. A study of the angular distributions of n_{0} suggests states at E_{x} = 7.70 (3/2^{+}), 7.95 (3/2^{+}), 8.95 ((1/2^{})), 10.0 ((3/2^{})), 11.0 ((1/2^{+})) and 12.05 MeV ((3/2^{+})). See (1981AJ01) for references and for additional information. See also (1982JU03) and (1980JO1E, 1982KI1H; theor.).
The integrated cross section for E_{γ} = 17.5 (threshold) to 28 MeV is 36 ± 5 MeV · mb. Resonances are observed at E_{x} = 18.6, (19.7), 20.7, (22), 23.5, 24.5 and (26) MeV. [σ_{max} at E_{x} ≈ 23 MeV is 8 mb]. Below ≈ 18 MeV the cross section is dominated by transitions involving T_{<} states. The states at 18.6 and 20.7 MeV have a significant T_{>} component. The two isospin components of the GDR appear to be split by 6.8 MeV (1983ZU02). For the earlier work see (1981AJ01).
See (1981AJ01).
The elastic scattering has been studied for E_{e} = 120 to 750 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and 80 to 338 MeV (1982HI07). The form factor for M1 elastic scattering is enhanced above q ≈ 2 fm^{}1 (1982HI07). See also (1983SI11) and (1985SI05; theor.). A number of inelastic groups are seen: see Table 13.12 (in PDF or PS). [The data (1980SO1B) shown in Table 13.16 (in PDF or PS) of (1981AJ01) have not been published.] A distinct splitting of the giant resonance into two large peaks near E_{x} = 20.5 and 24.5 MeV, with widths of ≈ 3 and ≈ 4 MeV, respectively, is observed. It is suggested that these are groupings of narrower peaks. The E_{x} = 20.5 and 24.5 MeV resonances are probably T = 1/2 and T = 3/2, although the 4 MeV splitting is somewhat smaller than expected: see (1981AJ01). For reaction (b) see (1981AJ01). See also (1981SI1B, 1982DE1K, 1984DO20, 1984LI25, 1985HI04) and (1981DE07, 1981DE1U, 1981IS11, 1981LI13, 1981SU03, 1981SU08, 1982CH16, 1982LIZW, 1983CH15, 1983CH1N, 1983GM1A, 1984SA1H; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{π} = 20 to 180 MeV: see (1981AJ01) and Table 13.13 (in PDF or PS). At E_{π±} = 162 MeV angular distributions have been measured to many states (or groups of states) of ^{13}C with E_{x} up to 22 MeV [see Table 13.13 (in PDF or PS)]. Enhanced in π^{} scattering are ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.85, 9.50, 21.60 ± 0.05), the latter very strongly but with a large uncertainty. Enhanced in π^{+} scattering are ^{13}C*(3.68, 7.55, 8.86, 11.82, 16.05 ± 0.05, 17.92 ± 0.05, 21.37 ± 0.05). The data for ^{13}C*(9.50, 21.60, 16.05, 21.37) indicate pure neutron particlehole excitations for the first two states and pure proton excitation for the latter two, however with large uncertainties except for ^{13}C*(9.5). Spin assignments are 9/2^{+} for ^{13}C*(9.50); 7/2^{+} or 9/2^{+} for ^{13}C*(16.05, 17.92, 21.37, 21.60); 5/2^{+} and/or 7/2^{+} for ^{13}C*(11.82) [unresolved doublet?]. The π^{}/π^{+} asymmetry near 21.5 MeV suggests that there is isospin mixing between T = 1/2 and 3/2 states of J^{π} = 7/2^{+} and/or 9/2^{+} (1982SE04, 1983SE15). See also (1981AJ01), (1981SE08), (1984LI1T; theor.) and the "General" section here.
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{n} = 4.5 to 11 MeV (1982REZX; n_{0}, n_{1}), 5.7 to 8.25 MeV (1982REZY; n_{2}, n_{3}), 9.97, 11.96, 13.94, 15.94 and 17.92 MeV (1982DA05, 1983DA22; n_{0}; and n_{1}, n_{2+3} at 9.97 MeV). See also (1981AJ01), ^{14}C and (1984PEZV, 1985DI1B; theor.).
Angular distributions have been studied at E_{p} = 1.37 MeV to 1 GeV [see (1981AJ01)] and at E_{p} = 135 MeV (1982CO08; to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 7.55, 8.86, 9.50, 9.90, 10.75, 11.08 [J^{π} = 1/2^{}], 15.11; DWBA) [see also (1982RI05)], E_{p} = 200 MeV (1981ME02; elastic; also A_{y}) and 547 MeV (1984SE12; ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 6.86, 7.55, 8.86, 9.50; also A_{y}). At E_{p} = 135 MeV ^{13}C*(6.86 [weak], 11.85, 14.39, 16.15, 21.4) are also populated (1982CO08). See also (1982PEZY). For reaction (b) see (1981AJ01). For breakup see (1983GL1D). See also ^{14}N, (1983PE14, 1983SC1G) and (1982BA14, 1984PEZV; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{d} = 0.71 to 13.6 MeV [see (1981AJ01)], at E_{d} = 17.7 MeV (1984PE24; d_{0}) and at E_{d} = 56 MeV (1984HA26; d_{0}). See also ^{15}N.
Angular distributions of elastically scattered ^{3}He ions have been studied at E(^{3}He) = 12 to 41 MeV: see (1981AJ01). Angular distributions have also been reported at E(^{3}He) = 43.6 MeV for the ^{3}He ions to ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 6.86, 7.49 + 7.55, 7.69, 8.86, 9.50, 9.90, 10.75 + 10.82, 11.08, 11.85, 15.11, 16.0) [and these have been compared to the analog states reached in the ^{13}C(^{3}He, t)^{13}N reaction] (1981PE08). See (1981AJ01) for the earlier work and (1983PE14).
Angular distributions have been studied at E_{α} = 15 to 40.5 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and at E_{α} = 35.5 MeV (1981PE08; to ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 6.86, 7.49 + 7.55, 7.69, 8.86, 9.50, 11.08, 11.85)). For ^{13}C*(7.69), E_{x} = 7686 ± 6 keV, Γ_{c.m.} = 70 ± 5 keV (1980FU04; also line shapes). Γ_{γ}/Γ ≤ 3 × 10^{4} and (3.0 ± 0.6) × 10^{4} for ^{13}C*(6.86, 7.49 + 7.55), respectively (1984DEZR). See also (1981AJ01) for the earlier work and (1982BU1D, 1983GO27; theor.).
Angular distributions of elastically scattered Li ions have been studied at E(Li) = 4.5 to 34 MeV and E(^{6}Li) = 28 MeV (1980CU03), 40 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] as well as at E(^{7}Li) = 34 MeV (1983STZS). For fusion and breakup cross sections see (1982DE30, 1982TA23). See also (1983BI13, 1984CA39, (1984HA53) and (1981ME1F, 1984AG1B; theor.).
The elastic scattering has been studied at E(^{13}C) = 28.1 and 36.2 MeV: see (1981AJ01). For total reaction cross sections see (1984DA17). See also (1981GR17; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions have been measured at E(^{10}B) = 18, 25, 32, 39 and 46 MeV (1982MA20) and at 42.5, 62.3 and 80.9 MeV (1985MA10). For fusion and breakup cross sections see (1981MA18, 1982MA20, 1983DA20, 1983MA53, 1984DEZX, 1984FR1A, 1984HAZK, 1985MA10). See also (1983BI13, 1983DU13, 1984HA53) and (1984HA43; theor.).
Angular distributions for reaction (a) have been reported for E(^{12}C) = 10 to 87 MeV and E(^{13}C) = 12 and 36 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and at E(^{13}C) = 21.7, 24.6, 27.4 MeV (1984FR05; ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.85)) and 260 MeV (1985BO2F; ^{12}C*(0, 4.4)). Elastic distributions for reactions (b) and (c) have been studied at E(^{13}C) = 15 to 24 MeV and at 15 MeV, respectively. See (1981AJ01) for references. At E(^{13}C) = 32 MeV the single and mutual inelastic excitation of ^{13}C*(3.09) has been studied by (1984BA31): the mutual excitation is very much smaller than predicted using a molecular particlecore coupling model. For excitation functions, fusion and evaporation cross sections see (1981HE08, 1982CH05, 1982DA16, 1983FR04, 1983KO15, 1984BA31, 1984FR1A). For a spinflip probability study see (1981TA21). See also ^{12}C in (1985AJ01), (1981PL1C, 1983HAZI), (1981ST1P, 1983BI13, 1983DU13, 1983GR1M, 1983VO1J, 1984FR1A, 1984HA53) and (1980BA54, 1982LO13, 1982OH05, 1982VO1F, 1983BA49, 1983CI08, 1983DE1U, 1983FR23, 1983HU1C, 1983LA1E, 1983RO16, 1984HA43, 1984IN03, 1984MAZT, 1984SA31, 1984VO11, 1985VO01; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions (reaction (a)) have been measured at E(^{14}N) = 19.3 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and 28 and 35 MeV (1983SR01) and at E(^{13}C) = 105 MeV (1980PR09). For excitation curves and fusion cross sections see (1982DI13, 1983SR01). See also (1981AJ01), (1983BI13, 1983DU13, 1984FR1A, 1984HA53) and (1983GO13; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions have been measured for reaction (a) at E(^{16}O) = 10 to 30 MeV and at E(^{13}C) = 36 and 105 MeV: see (1981AJ01). Those for reaction (b) are reported at E(^{17}O) = 29.8 and 32.3 MeV [see (1981AJ01)] and at 85.4, 120 and 140 MeV (1982HE07); and those for reaction (c) at E(^{18}O) = 15, 20, 24 and 31 MeV [see (1981AJ01)]. For breakup yield and fusion measurements see (1980RA12, 1982HE07, 1983DA02, 1983FR17, 1984RA10) and (1981AJ01). See also (1982LE1N, 1983BI13, 1983DU13, 1984FR1A, 1984HA53, 1985GA1M) and (1983AB08, 1983CI08, 1983PA1G, 1984AB1A, 1984HA43, 1984IN03, 1985PAZY; theor.).
See (1983DU13).
See (1980LI13, 1983CH01, 1984LI14; theor.).
Backward elastic angular distributions are reported at E(^{28}Si) = 77.6 to 94.6 MeV: see (1981AJ01). For an excitation function study see (1982CH02).
For an excitation function study (reaction (a)) see (1982CH02). For reaction (b) see (1983DU13).
See (1981AJ01, 1982HO1E) and (1980JA1C, 1980MA34, 1981KU09, 1981KU03, 1981LA04, 1984HU1Q; theor.).
See ^{13}N.
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{p} = 12 to 27 MeV: see (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions for t_{0} → t_{3} have been studied at E_{d} = 12 and 14 MeV: see (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{3}He) = 3 to 44.8 MeV: see (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{16}O) = 20, 25 and 30 MeV: see (1981AJ01). For reactions (a) and (b) see (1985KO04).
Angular distributions measured in the giant resonance region of ^{14}N are consistent with the proton decay of (p_{1}/2)^{}1(2s1d) giant dipole states to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and of (p_{3/2})^{}1(2s1d) states to ^{13}C*(3.68). The population of ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.85) [and of ^{13}C*(7.55) (1983VA1K)] is also reported. For E_{bs} = 15.5 to 29.5 MeV a large fraction of the neutron yield appears to be associated with sequential decay to ^{12}C via ^{13}C*(7.75, 8.86, 11.80): see (1981AJ01). See also ^{14}N.
Angular distributions have been determined at E_{n} = 10.1 to 14.7 MeV: see (1981AJ01).
At E_{p} = 46 MeV, the summed proton spectrum shows transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.5, 11.9); see (1981AJ01).
At E_{d} = 52 MeV, angular distributions have been measured for the ^{3}He particles to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 6.86, 7.5, 8.86, 9.50, 11.9 ± 0.15) and analyzed by DWBA: J^{π} = 5/2^{}, 1/2^{}, 3/2^{} and 3/2^{}, respectively, are assigned to ^{13}C*(7.5, 8.86, 9.50, 11.9). [However ^{13}C*(9.50) is known to have J^{π} = 9/2^{+}.] As expected, angular distributions of ^{3}He and of tritons (from ^{14}N(d, t)^{13}N) to analog states are closely the same: this has been shown for the ground state ^{3}He and triton groups as well as groups to ^{13}C*(8.9 + 9.5) and ^{13}N*(9.2): see (1981AJ01). Analyzing powers are reported at E_{d} = 52 MeV to ^{13}C*(0, 7.55) (1981MA14).
Observed α groups at E_{t} = 2.6 MeV are displayed in Table 13.22 (in PDF or PS) of (1976AJ04).
An angular distribution has been obtained at E(^{6}Li) = 32 MeV for the transition to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and ^{7}Be*(0, 0.43) [for the mirror reaction see reaction 33 in ^{13}N]: the relative cross sections show a deviation from isospin symmetry which is attributed to Coulomb effects. ^{13}C*(3.09) was also populated: see (1981AJ01). For reaction (b) see (1984ET01).
At E_{p} = 43.7 MeV ^{3}He groups have been observed to eleven states of ^{13}C: see Table 13.17 (in PDF or PS) in (1981AJ01). See also (1976AJ04).
At E_{α} = 42 MeV, the angular distribution of the ^{6}Li particles to ^{13}C_{g.s.} has been measured: see (1981AJ01).
Angular distributions have been measured for E_{n} to 18.8 MeV for α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3}: see (1981AJ01).
See (1977GR04).
At E_{α} = 42 MeV the angular distributions of the reaction involving ^{13}C_{g.s.} and ^{7}Be*(0 + 0.43) has been measured: see (1981AJ01).
See ^{17}F in (1982AJ01).
Angular distributions at E_{d} = 13.6 MeV involving ^{13}C_{g.s.} and ^{7}Li*(0, 0.48) are reported by (1980GA1K). See also (1984NE1A).
An angular distribution involving ^{13}C_{g.s.} is reported at E_{d} = 13.6 MeV (1980GA26). See also (1984NE1A).
At E_{d} = 13.6 MeV an angular distribution has been reported by (1984GO1H).
