
^{8}Be (1988AJ01)(See Energy Level Diagrams for ^{8}Be) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 8.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model: (1984PA04, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1985FI1E, 1987BL18, 1987KI1C, 1988WO04). Collective, rotational and deformed models: (1984PA04, 1985RO1G). Cluster and αparticle models: (1981PL1A, 1983CA12, 1983DR09, 1983FU1D, 1983HA41, 1983JA09, 1983SH38, 1984DE24, 1984DU17, 1984LU1A, 1984LU1B, 1985FI1E, 1986GU1F, 1986KR12, 1986SU06, 1988KR01). Special states: (1981PL1A, 1983AD1B, 1983BI1C, 1983FE07, 1983FI11, 1983HA41, 1984DE24, 1984DU17, 1984LU1A, 1984LU1B, 1984VA06, 1984VAZS, 1984ZW1A, 1985FI1E, 1985GO1A, 1985PO19, 1985PU03, 1985RO1G, 1986AN10, 1987KA18, 1987KI1C, 1987SV1A, 1987WA36, 1988BA75, 1988KR01, 1988KW02, 1988KH03). Electromagnetic transitions, giant resonances: (1983FI11, 1984VA1B, 1985FI1E, 1985GO1A, 1985GR1A, 1986AN10, 1986QUZZ, 1987KI1C). Astrophysical questions: (1985BO1E, 1987FU04). Complex reactions involving ^{8}Be: (1982GU21, 1983DEZW, 1983EL1A, 1983SI1A, 1983WA1F, 1983XU1A, 1984AB1C, 1984PA13, 1985BU16, 1985HA1N, 1985KA1E, 1985KA1G, 1985KAZQ, 1985KW03, 1985PO11, 1985PO19, 1985WA22, 1986BA2D, 1986BL12, 1986BR26, 1986GA24, 1986GU1F, 1986IR01, 1986MA1O, 1986PO06, 1986PO12, 1986TA1M, 1987AR19, 1987BL16, 1987CH26, 1987CH33, 1987CH32, 1987DE1O, 1987DU07, 1987GE1B, 1987GL05, 1987HA45, 1987PE1B, 1987PO23, 1987RUZX, 1988AR05, 1988POZZ, 1988RU01, 1988SA09, 1988VA1E). Reactions involving pions and other mesons: (1981MC09, 1983SP06, 1985BE1C, 1987HU12). Hypernuclei: (1982KA1D, 1983SH38, 1983SH1E, 1984ZH1B, 1985AH1A, 1985IK1A, 1985MO1F, 1986BA1W, 1986DA1B, 1987BA2K, 1987MI38, 1987PO1H, 1987YA1M, 1988TA29). Other topics: (1983AD1B, 1983BI1C, 1983FU1D, 1983GR26, 1983MI1E, 1985AN28, 1986BL1D, 1986GL1E, 1986MA1W, 1987AB21, 1987SV1A, 1988AJ1B, 1988BO04, 1988KW02, 1988RU1B, 1988RU1D, 1988WA1E). Groundstate properties of ^{8}Be: (1983ANZQ, 1983DR09, 1984DU17, 1984LU1A, 1984LU1B, 1985AN28, 1985FI1E, 1985GO1A, 1985SH1A, 1987BL18, 1987BO42, 1987KI1C, 1987KO1U, 1987SA15, 1987SV1A, 1988AR05, 1988WO04).
Γ_{c.m.} for ^{8}Be_{g.s.} = 6.8 ± 1.7 eV: see (1974AJ01). See also (1987WE1C, 1988BA86; astrophysics) and (1983DR09; theor.).
The yield of Γ_{1} has been measured for E_{α} = 32 to 36 MeV. The yield of Γ_{0} for E_{α} = 33 to 38 MeV is twenty times lower than for Γ_{1}, consistent with E2 decay. An angular correlation measurement at the resonances corresponding to ^{8}Be*(16.6 + 16.9) [2^{+}; T = 0 + 1] gives δ = 0.19 ± 0.03, Γ_{γ}(M1) = 6.4 ± 0.5 eV [weighted mean of the two published measurements listed in (1979AJ01)]. The E_{x} of ^{8}Be*(3.0) is determined in this reaction to be 3.18 ± 0.05 MeV [see also Table 8.4 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01)]. The E2 bremsstrahlung cross section to ^{8}Be_{g.s.} has been calculated as a function of E_{x} over the 3MeV state: the total Γ_{γ} for this transition is 8.3 meV, corresponding to 75 W.u. (1986LA05). A calculation of the Γ_{γ} from the decay of the 4^{+} 11.4MeV state to the 2^{+} state yields 0.46 eV (19 W.u.). The maximum cross section for the intrastate γray transition within the 2^{+} resonance is calculated to be ≤ 2.5 nb at E_{x} ≈ 3.3 MeV (1986LA19). See also (1985BA45; theor.).
The cross sections for formation of ^{7}Li*(0, 0.48) [E_{α} = 39 to 49.5 MeV] and ^{7}Be*(0, 0.43) [39.4 to 47.4 MeV] both show structures at E_{α} ≈ 40.0 and ≈ 44.5 MeV: they are due predominantly to the 2^{+} states ^{8}Be*(20.1, 22.2): see (1979AJ01). The excitation functions for p_{0}, p_{2}, d_{0}, d_{1} for E_{α} = 54.96 to 55.54 MeV have been measured in order to study the decay of the first T = 2 state in ^{8}Be: see Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS) in (1984AJ01). Cross sections for p_{0+1} are also reported at E_{α} = 37.5 to 140.0 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). The cross sections for reaction (c) has been measured at three energies in the range E_{α} = 46.7 to 49.5 MeV: see (1979AJ01) and below. The production of ^{6}Li, ^{7}Li and ^{7}Be [and ^{6}He] has been studied for E_{α} = 61.5 to 158.2 MeV by (1982GL01) and at 198.4 MeV by (1985WO11). The production of ^{7}Li (via reactions (a) and (b)) and of ^{6}Li is discussed. At energies beyond E_{α} ≈ 250 MeV the α + α reaction does not contribute to the natural abundance of lithium, reinforcing theories which produce ^{6}Li in cosmicray processes and the "missing" ^{7}Li in the Big Bang: thus the universe is open (1985WO11, 1982GL01). The inclusive cross section for production of ^{3}He has been measured at E_{α} = 218 MeV (1984AL03). For a fragmentation study at 125 GeV see (1985BE1E). See also (1984AJ01, 1984PA1E, 1984RE14).
The αα scattering reveals the ground state as a resonance with Q_{0} = 92.12 ± 0.05 keV, Γ_{c.m.} = 6.8 ± 1.7 eV [τ = (0.97 ± 0.24) × 10^{16} sec]. For E_{α} = 30 to 70 MeV the l = 0 phase shift shows resonant behavior at E_{α} = 40.7 MeV, corresponding to a 0^{+} state at E_{x} = 20.2 MeV, Γ < 1 MeV, Γ_{α}/Γ < 0.5. No evidence for other 0^{+} states is seen above E_{α} = 43 MeV. The dwave phase shift becomes appreciable for E_{α} > 2.5 MeV and passes through resonance at E_{α} = 6 MeV (E_{x} = 3.18 MeV, Γ = 1.5 MeV, J^{π} = 2^{+}): see Table 8.4 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01). Five 2^{+} levels are observed from l = 2 phase shifts measured from E_{α} = 30 to 70 MeV: ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9) with Γ_{α} = Γ [see Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS)], and states with E_{x} = 20.1, 22.2 and 25.2 MeV. The latter has a small Γ_{α}. The l = 2 αα phase shifts have been analyzed by (1986WA01) up to E_{α} = 34 MeV: intruder states below E_{x} = 26 MeV need not be introduced. The l = 4 phase shift rises from E_{α} ≈ 11 MeV and indicates a broad 4^{+} level at E_{x} = 11.5 ± 0.3 MeV [Γ = 4.0 ± 0.4 MeV]. A rapid rise of δ_{4} at E_{α} = 40 MeV corresponds to a 4^{+} state at 19.9 MeV with Γ_{α}/Γ ≈ 0.96; Γ < 1 MeV and therefore Γ_{α} < 1 MeV, which is < 5% of the Wigner limit. A broad 4^{+} state is also observed near E_{α} = 51.3 MeV (E_{x} = 25.5 MeV). Over the range E_{α} = 30 to 70 MeV a gradual increase in δ_{6} is observed. Some indications of a 6^{+} state at E_{x} ≈ 28 MeV and of an 8^{+} state at ≈ 57 MeV have been reported; Γ_{c.m.} ≈ 20 and ≈ 73 MeV, respectively. A resonance is not observed at the first T = 2 state, ^{8}Be*(27.49). See (1979AJ01) for references. The elastic scattering has also been studied at E_{α} = 56.3 to 95.5 MeV (1987NE1C; prelim.), 158.2 MeV, 650 and 850 MeV and at 4.32 and 5.07 GeV/c [see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] as well as at 198.4 MeV (1985WO11). For αα correlations involving ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0) see (1987CH33, 1987PO03). See also (1985KR21, 1986FO04, 1986GOZY, 1986UC1A, 1987FO08) and the "General" section here. For inclusive cross sections see (1984AJ01) and (1984AL03; 218 MeV). For studies at very high energies see reaction 3 and (1982AB1B, 1984SA39, 1984TA1D, 1984TA1G, 1985AB1A, 1985AK1A, 1985CA1C, 1986BE2N, 1986BE1S, 1986BE1T, 1986TA1N, 1986TA1P, 1987BA13). See also (1986CH1M), (1982NA1B, 1983FA1A, 1984FA1B, 1984FR1C, 1985CA41, 1985FA1A, 1985FR1E, 1985WI1B, 1986AN1F, 1986CH1J, 1986ST1D, 1987HE1B, 1987OT1D ), (1985NO1B, 1986LA16, 1987FU04, 1987MU1B; astrophysics) and (1982WE15, 1983AL1C, 1983BU15, 1983FI11, 1983GO25, 1983KO41, 1983MA73, 1983OK06, 1983PR09, 1983SA16, 1984DE24, 1984FI11, 1984FI13, 1984FR10, 1984HE1D, 1984KR10, 1984LI28, 1984MA16, 1984MA1H, 1984MA68, 1984NA11, 1984OK03, 1984TA1E, 1984VAZS, 1984ZA1B, 1985BA45, 1985FI1E, 1985FR1F, 1985HO1B, 1985KI11, 1985PR1A, 1985PR1B, 1985SP05, 1985TH08, 1985YA05, 1985YI1B, 1985YI1C, 1986CR1B, 1986FR12, 1986HO33, 1986LA12, 1986MA03, 1986OC1A, 1986SA30, 1986SU06, 1986WI04, 1986YU1A, 1987BA35, 1987FR1D, 1987KA1W, 1987KR03, 1987OC1B, 1987PR01, 1987SA37, 1987SH1M, 1987WA07, 1988BA75, 1988KR01, 1988MO05; theor.).
The yield of γrays to ^{8}Be*(17.64) [1^{+}; T = 1] has been measured for E_{d} = 6.85 to 7.10 MeV. A resonance is observed at E_{d} = 6965 keV [E_{x} = 27495.8 ± 2.4 keV, Γ_{c.m.} = 5.5 ± 2.0 keV]; Γ_{γ} = 23 ± 4 eV [1.14 ± 0.20 W.u.] for this M1 transition from the first 0^{+}; T = 2 state in ^{8}Be, in good agreement with the intermediate coupling model: see Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS) in (1984AJ01). See also (1979AJ01).
Yield curves and cross sections have been measured for E_{d} = 48 keV to 17 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). See also (1983SZZY). Polarization measurements are reported at E_{d} = 0.27 to 3.7 MeV. Comparisons of the populations of ^{7}Be*(0, 0.43) and of ^{7}Li*(0, 0.48) have been made at many energies, to E_{d} = 7.2 MeV. The n/p ratios are closely equal for analog states, as expected for charge symmetry: see (1979AJ01). However, the n_{1} p_{1} yield ratio decreases from 1.05 at E_{d} = 160 keV to 0.94 at 60 keV: it is suggested that this is due to polarization of the deuteron (1985CE12). See also ^{7}Be, (1985WA1C) and (1984KU15; theor.).
Excitation functions have been measured for E_{d} = 30 keV to 5.4 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). The thick target yield of 0.48MeV γrays is reported from ≈ 50 to ≈ 170 keV (1985CE12). See also (1983SZZY). An anomaly is observed in the p_{1}/p_{0} intensity ratio at E_{d} = 6.945 MeV, corresponding to the first 0^{+}; T = 2 state, Γ = 10 ± 3 keV, Γ_{p0} ≪ Γ_{p1}, Γ_{p0} < Γ_{d}. Polarization measurements have been reported at E_{d} = 0.6 to 10.9 MeV: see (1979AJ01). See also ^{7}Li and (1984KU15; theor.).
The yield of elastically scattered deuterons has been measured for E_{d} = 2 to 7.14 MeV. No resonances are observed: see (1974AJ01). See also (1983HA1D, 1985LI1C; theor.). The cross section for tritium production rises rapidly to 190 mb at 1 MeV, then more slowly to 290 mb near 4 MeV: see (1974AJ01). For VAP and TAP measurements at E_{pol. d} = 191 and 395 MeV see (1986GA18).
Cross sections and angular distributions (reaction (a)) have been measured at E_{d} = 30 keV to 31 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). See also (1983SZZY). A critical analysis of the lowenergy data has led to a calculation of the reaction rate parameters for thermonuclear reactions for plasma temperatures of 2 keV to 1 MeV: see (1984AJ01). Polarization measurements are reported in the range 0.4 to 11 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01) and see below. Pronounced variations are observed in the cross sections and in the analyzing powers. Maxima are seen at E_{d} = 0.8 MeV, Γ_{lab} ≈ 0.8 MeV and E_{d} = 3.75 MeV, Γ_{lab} ≈ 1.4 MeV. The 4 MeV peak is also observed in the tensor component coefficients with L = 0, 4 and 8 and in the vector component coefficients: two overlapping resonances are suggested. At higher energies all coefficients show a fairly smooth behavior which suggests that only broad resonances can exist. The results are in agreement with those from reaction 4, that is with two 2^{+} states at E_{x} = 22.2 and 25.2 MeV and a 4^{+} state at 25.5 MeV. A strong resonance is seen in the α* channel [to ^{4}He(20.1), J^{π} = 0^{+}] presumably due to ^{8}Be*(25.2, 25.5). In addition the ratio of the α*/α differential cross sections at 30° shows a broad peak centered at E_{x} ≈ 26.5 MeV (which may be due to interference effects) and suggests a resonancelike anomaly at E_{x} ≈ 28 MeV. A_{yy} = 1 points are reported at E_{d} = 5.55 ± 0.12 (θ_{c.m.} = 29.7 ± 1.0°) and 8.80 ± 0.25 MeV (θ_{c.m.} = 90.0 ± 1.0°) [corresponds to E_{x} = 26.44 and 28.87 MeV]. For references see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). At E_{d} = 6.945 MeV, the α_{0} yield shows an anomaly corresponding to ^{8}Be*(27.49), the 0^{+}; T = 2 analog of ^{8}He_{g.s.}. This T = 2 state has recently been studied using both polarized deuterons and ^{6}Li ions. The ratio of the partial widths for decay into ^{6}Li + d states with channel spin 2 and 0, Γ_{2}/Γ_{1} = 0.322 ± 0.091 (1986SO07). A kinematically complete study of reaction (b) has been reported at E_{d} = 1.2 to 8.0 MeV: the transition matrix element squared plotted as a function of E_{αα*} (the relative energy in the channel ^{4}He_{g.s.} + ^{4}He*(20.1) [0^{+}]) shows a broad maximum at E_{x} ≈ 25 MeV. Analysis of these results, and of a study of ^{7}Li(p, α)α* [see reaction 18] which shows a peak of different shape at E_{x} ≈ 24 MeV, indicate the formation and decay of overlapping states of high spatial symmetry, if the observed structures are interpreted in terms of ^{8}Be resonances: see (1984AJ01). For other work see (1984AJ01). See also ^{6}Li, (1986ST1E), (1984VO1A, 1988KU1E; applications) and (1983HA1D, 1984KR1B, 1984KU15; theor.).
At E_{t} = 2 to 4.5 MeV ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.6, 16.9) are populated (1984LIZY; prelim.). See also (1966LA04, 1974AJ01).
Angular distributions have been studied in the range E(^{3}He) = 0.46 to 17 MeV and at E(pol. ^{6}Li) = 21 MeV. ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.63, 16.92, 17.64, 18.15, 19.0, 19.4, 19.9) are populated in this reaction: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). For reaction (b) see (1974AJ01) and (1987ZA07). See also ^{9}B.
Deuteron groups have been observed to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.3 ± 0.4). Angular distributions have been measured at E_{α} = 15.8 to 48 MeV: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). A study of reaction (b) shows that the peak due to ^{8}Be*(3.0) is best fitted by using Γ = 1.2 ± 0.3 MeV. At E_{α} = 42 MeV the αα FSI is dominated by ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0). See also Table 8.4 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01) and (1983BE51; theor.).
At E_{max}(^{6}Li) = 13 MeV reaction (a) proceeds via ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.6, 16.9, 22.5). The involvement of a state at E_{x} = 19.9 MeV (Γ = 1.3 MeV) is suggested. Good agreement with the shapes of the peaks corresponding to ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9) is obtained by using a simple twolevel formula with interference, corrected for the effect of finalstate Coulomb interaction, assuming Γ(16.6) = 90 keV and Γ(16.9) = 70 keV: see also Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS). The ratio of the intensities of the groups corresponding to ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9) remains constant for E(^{6}Li) = 4.3 to 5.5 MeV: I(16.6)/I(16.9) = 1.22 ± 0.08. Partial angular distributions for the α_{0} group have been measured at fourteen energies for E(^{6}Li) = 4 to 24 MeV. See (1979AJ01) for the references. At E(^{6}Li) = 36 to 46 MeV sequential decay (reaction (b)) via ^{8}Be states at E_{x} = 3.0, 11.4, 16.9 and 19.65 MeV is reported: see (1984AJ01). (1987LA25) report the possible involvement of the 2^{+} state ^{8}Be*(22.2). For reaction (c) see (1983WA09) and ^{12}C in (1985AJ01). See also (1983MI10) and (1982LA19, 1985NO1A; theor.).
Cross sections and angular distributions have been reported from E_{p} = 30 keV to 18 MeV. Gamma rays are observed to the ground (Γ_{0}) and to the broad, 2^{+}, excited state at 3.0 MeV (Γ_{1}) and to ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9) (Γ_{3}, Γ_{4}). Resonances for both Γ_{0} and Γ_{1} occur at E_{p} = 0.44 and 1.03 MeV, and for Γ_{1} alone at 2, 4.9, 6.0, 7.3, and possibly at 3.1 and 11.1 MeV. In addition broad resonances are reported at E_{p} ≈ 5 MeV (Γ_{0}), Γ ≈ 45 MeV, and at E_{p} ≈ 7.3 MeV (Γ_{1}), Γ ≈ 8 MeV: see Table 8.6 (in PDF or PS). The E_{p} ≈ 5 MeV resonance (E_{x} ≈ 22 MeV) represents the giant dipole resonance based on ^{8}Be(0) while the Γ_{1} resonance, ≈ 2.2 MeV higher, is based on ^{8}Be*(3.0). The Γ_{0} and Γ_{1} giant resonance peaks each contain about 10% of the dipole sum strength. The main trend between E_{p} = 8 and 17.5 MeV is a decreasing cross section. At the E_{p} = 0.44 MeV resonance (E_{x} = 17.64 MeV) the radiation is nearly isotropic consistent with pwave formation, J^{π} = 1^{+}, with channel spin ratio σ(J_{c} = 2)/σ(J_{c} = 1) = 3.2 ± 0.5. Radiative widths for the Γ_{0} and Γ_{1} decay are displayed in Table 8.7 (in PDF or PS). A careful study of the αbreakup of ^{8}Be*(16.63, 16.92) [both J^{π} = 2^{+}] for E_{p} = 0.44 to 2.45 MeV shows that the nonresonant part of the cross section for production of ^{8}Be*(16.63) is accounted for by an extranuclear directcapture process. Resonances for production of ^{8}Be*(16.63, 16.92) are observed at E_{p} = 0.44, 1.03 and 1.89 MeV [^{8}Be*(17.64, 18.15, 18.9)]. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of nearly maximal isospin mixing for ^{8}Be*(16.63, 16.92): decay to these states is not observed from the 3^{+} states at E_{x} = 19 MeV, but rather from the 2^{} state at E_{x} = 18.9 MeV. Squared T = 1 components calculated for ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9) are 40 and 60%, and 95 and 5% for ^{8}Be*(17.6, 18.2). The cross section for (γ_{3} + γ_{4}) has also been measured for E_{p} =11.5 to 30 MeV (θ = 90°) by detecting the γrays and for E_{p} = 4 to 13 MeV (at five energies) by detecting the two αparticles from the decay of ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9): a broad bump is observed at E_{p} = 8 ± 2 MeV (1981MA33). The angle and energy integrated yield only exhausts 8.6% of the classical dipole sum for E_{p} = 4 to 30 MeV, suggesting that this structure does not represent the GDR built on ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9). A weak, very broad [Γ ≥ 20 MeV] peak may also be present at E_{x} = 20  30 MeV. A direct capture calculation adequately describes the observed cross section (1981MA33). A study of the γdecay of ^{8}Be*(17.64, 18.15) shows no evidence for a pseudoscalar particle postulated to account for narrow peaks in e^{+} spectra in heavyion reactions (1988SA2A). For the earlier references see (1979AJ01). See also (1983CH1C), (1986WE1D), (1984DA1H; astrophysics), (1988KI1C; applied) and (1983GO1B, 1984SE16, 1985GO1B, 1987KI1C; theor.).
Measurements of cross sections have been reported for E_{p} = 1.9 to 199.1 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and in the range 60.1 to 480.0 MeV (1984DA22; activation σ). Polarization measurements have been reported at E_{p} = 2.05 to 5.5 MeV, 30 and 50 MeV [see (1974AJ01)] and at E_{pol. p} = 52.8 MeV (1988HE08) [K_{z}^{z'} = 0.07 ± 0.02]. See also below. The yield of ground state neutrons (n_{0}) rises steeply from threshold and shows pronounced resonances at E_{p} = 2.25 and 4.9 MeV. The yield of n_{1} also rises steeply from threshold and exhibits a broad maximum near E_{p} = 3.2 MeV and a broad dip at E_{p} ≈ 5.5 MeV, also observed in the p_{1} yield. Multichannel scattering length approximation analysis of the 2^{} partial wave near the n_{0} threshold indicates that the 2^{} state at E_{x} = 18.9 MeV is virtual relative to the threshold and that its width Γ = 50 ± 20 keV. The ratio of the cross section for ^{7}Li(p, γ)^{8}Be*(18.9) → ^{8}Be*(16.6 + 16.9) + Γ to the thermal neutron capture cross section ^{7}Be(n, γ)^{8}Be*(18.9) → ^{8}Be*(16.6 + 16.9) + Γ, provides a rough estimate of the isospin impurity of ^{8}Be*(18.9): σ_{p}, Γ/σ_{n}, Γ ≈ 1.5 × 10^{5}. The T = 1 isospin impurity is ≤ 10% in intensity. See also reaction 23. See (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). The structure at E_{p} = 2.25 MeV is ascribed to a 3^{+}, T = (1), l = 1 resonance with Γ_{n} ≈ Γ_{p} and Γ^{2}_{n}/Γ^{2}_{p} = 3 to 10: see (1966LA04). At higher energies the broad peak in the n_{0} yield at E_{p} =4.9 MeV can be fitted by J^{π} = 3^{(+)} with Γ = 1.1 MeV, Γ^{2}_{n} ≈ Γ^{2}_{p}. The behavior of the n_{1} cross section can be fitted by assuming a 1^{} state at E_{x} = 19.5 MeV and a J = 0, 1, 2, positiveparity state at 19.9 MeV [presumably the 20.1  20.2 MeV states reported in reaction 4]. In addition the broad dip at E_{p} ≈ 5.5 MeV may be accounted for by the interference of two 2^{+} states. See Table 8.8 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01). The 0° differential cross section increases rapidly to ≈ 35 mb/sr at 30 MeV and then remains constant to 100 MeV: see (1985BO1C). The total reaction cross section [^{7}Be*(0, 0.43)] decreases inversely with E_{p} in the range 60.1 to 480.0 MeV (1984DA22) [note: the values of σ_{t} supersede those reported earlier]. The transverse polarization transfer, D_{NN} (0°), for the g.s. transition has been measured at E_{pol. p} = 160 MeV (1984TA07). See also (1986MC09; E_{pol. p} = 800 MeV), (1987WAZT), 1984BA1U), (1985CA41; astrophysics), (1983LO12; applications), (1986RA21, 1987TA22) and (1988GU1F; theor.).
Absolute differential cross sections for elastic scattering have been reported for E_{p} = 0.4 to 12 MeV and at 14.5, 20.0 and 31.5 MeV. The yields of inelastically scattered protons (to ^{7}Li*(0.48)) and of 0.48 MeV γrays have been measured for E_{p} = 0.8 to 12 MeV: see (1974AJ01). Polarization measurements have been reported at a number of energies in the range E_{p} = 0.67 MeV to 2.1 GeV/c [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)], at E_{pol. p} = 1.89 to 2.59 MeV (1986SA1P; p_{0}; prelim.) and at 65 MeV (1987TO06; continuum; prelim.). See also (1983GLZZ). Anomalies in the elastic scattering appear at E_{p} = 0.44, 1.03, 1.88, 2.1, 2.5, 4.2 and 5.6 MeV. Resonances at E_{p} = 1.03, 3 and 5.5 MeV and an anomaly at E_{p} = 1.88 MeV appear in the inelastic channel. A phaseshift analysis and a review of the crosssection data show that the 0.44 and 1.03 MeV resonances are due to 1^{+} states which are a mixture of ^{5}P_{1} and ^{3}P_{1} with a mixing parameter of +25° ; that the 2^{} state at the neutron threshold (E_{p} = 1.88 MeV) has a width of about 50 keV [see also reaction 14]; and that the E_{p} = 2.05 MeV resonance corresponds to a 3^{+} state. The anomalous behavior of the ^{5}P_{3} phase around E_{p} = 2.2 MeV appears to result from the coupling of the two 3^{+} states [resonances at E_{p} = 2.05 and 2.25 MeV]. The ^{3}S_{1} phase begins to turn positive after 2.2 MeV suggesting a 1^{} state at E_{p} = 2.5 MeV: see Table 8.8 (in PDF or PS). The polarization data show structures at E_{p} = 1.9 and 2.3 MeV. A phaseshift analysis of the (p, p) data finds no indication of a possible 1^{} state with 17.4 < E_{x} < 18.5 MeV [see, however, reaction 15 in (1979AJ01)]. An attempt has been made to observe the T = 2 state [^{8}Be*(27.47)] in the p_{0}, p_{1} and p_{2} yields. None of these shows the effect of the T = 2 state. Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS) in (1984AJ01) displays the upper limit for Γ_{p0}/Γ. The proton total reaction has been reported for E_{p} = 25.1 to 48.1 MeV by (1985CA36). (1987CH33, 1987PO03) have studied p^{7}Li correlations involving ^{8}Be*(17.64, 18.15, 18.9 + 19.1 + 19.2). See also ^{7}Li, (1984BA1U), (1986BA88), (1986RA1D; applications) and (1986HA1K, 1988GU1F; theor.) and the "General" section here.
The excitation function for d_{0} measured for E_{p} = 11.64 to 11.76 MeV does not show any effect from the T = 2 state [^{8}Be*(27.47)]: see (1979AJ01). See also (1984BA1T)
The cross section increases from (4.3 ± 0.9) × 10^{5} mb at E_{p} = 28.1 keV to 6.33 mb at 998 keV. Astrophysical Sfactors have been calculated over that range: S(0) = 52 ± 8 keV · b (1986RO13). For the earlier work see (1984AJ01). Excitation functions and angular distributions have been measured at many energies in the range E_{p} = 23 keV to 62.5 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). Polarization measurements have been carried out for E_{p} = 0.8 to 10.6 MeV [see (1974AJ01)]: in the range E_{p} = 3 to 10 MeV the asymmetry has one broad peak in the angular distribution at all energies except near 5 MeV; the peak value is 0.98 ± 0.04 at 6 MeV and is essentially 1.0 for E_{p} = 8.5 to 10 MeV. Broad resonances are reported to occur at E_{p} = 3.0 MeV [Γ ≈ 1 MeV] and at ≈ 5.7 MeV [Γ ≈ 1 MeV]. Structures are also reported at E_{p} = 6.8 MeV and at E_{p} = 9.0 MeV: see (1979AJ01). The 9.0 MeV resonance is also reflected in the behavior of the A_{2} coefficient. The experimental data on yields and on polarization appear to require including two 0^{+} states [at E_{x} ≈ 19.7 and 21.8 MeV] with very small αparticle widths, and four 2^{+} states [at E_{x} ≈ 15.9, 20.1, 22.2 and 25 MeV]. See, however, reaction 4. A 4^{+} state near 20 MeV was also introduced in the calculation but its contribution was negligible. The observed discrepancies are said to be probably due to the assumption of pure T = 0 for these states. At E_{p} = 11.64 to 11.76 MeV the excitation function does not show any effect due to the T = 2 state at E_{x} = 27.47 MeV. See (1979AJ01) for references. A study of the ^{7}Li(p, α)^{4}He* reaction to ^{4}He*(20.1) [0^{+}] at E_{p} = 4.5 to 12.0 MeV shows a broad maximum at E_{x} ≈ 24 MeV: see reaction 9 and (1984AJ01). See also (1986ZA09), (1984HA1M, 1984YA1A, 1985BO1K, 1985CA41, 1985DE1K, 1986BO1H, 1987AS05, 1987KA1R, 1987RO25, 1988BA86, 1988FO1A; astrophysics), (1986RA1D, 1986ST1E, 1986TU1B; applications) and (1984BL21, 1984KR1B; theor.).
The population of ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.6, 16.9, 17.6, 18.2, 18.9, 19.1, 19.2) has been reported in reaction (a). For the parameters of ^{8}Be*(3.0) see Table 8.4 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01). Angular distributions of n_{0} and n_{1} have been reported at E_{d} = 0.7 to 3.0 MeV and at E_{d} = 15.25 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)] and at 0.19 MeV (1983DA32, 1987DA25) and 0.40 and 0.46 MeV (1984GA07; n_{0} only). The angular distributions of the neutrons to ^{8}Be*(16.6, 17.6, 18.2) are fit by l_{p} = 1: see (1974AJ01). Reaction (b) at E_{d} = 2.85 to 14.97 MeV proceeds almost entirely through the excitation and sequential decay of ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9) (1987WA21). ^{8}Be*(11.4) may also be involved [E_{x} = 11.4 ± 0.05 MeV, Γ_{c.m.} = 2.8 ± 0.2 MeV] as may state(s) at E_{x} ≈ 20 MeV: see (1979AJ01). See also ^{9}Be, (1983BL17, 1986BA40), (1986LE1E; applications) and (1983MU13, 1984BL21; theor.).
Deuteron groups are observed to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.6, 16.9, 17.6, 18.2). For the parameters of ^{8}Be*(3.0) see Table 8.4 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01). For the J^{π} = 2^{+} mixed isospin states see Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured for E(^{3}He) = 0.9 to 24.3 MeV and at E(pol. ^{3}He) = 33.3 MeV: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). Reaction (b) has been studied at E(^{3}He) = 5.0 MeV (1985DA29) and at 9, 11 and 12 MeV (1986ZA09). ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0) are reported to be involved (1985DA29). See also ^{10}B and (1983KU17; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured to E_{α} = 50 MeV: see (1966LA04, 1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). The ground state of ^{8}Be decays isotropically in the c.m. system: J^{π} = 0^{+}. Sequential decay (reaction (b)) is reported at E_{α} = 50 MeV via ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.4, 16.6, 16.9, 19.9): see (1974AJ01). See also (1983BE51, 1985PU03; theor.).
^{8}Be*(0, 3.0) have been populated in this reaction (1987BO1M; E(^{7}Li) = 22 MeV). See also (1988AL1G).
The total (n, p) cross section has been measured from 25 × 10^{3} eV to 13.5 keV. For thermal neutrons the cross sections to ^{7}Li*(0, 0.48) are 38 400 ± 800 and 420 ± 120 b, respectively. A departure from a 1/v shape in σ_{t} is observed for E_{n} > 100 eV. The astrophysical reaction rate is ≈ 1/3 lower than that previously used: this could lead to an increase in the calculated rate of production of ^{7}Li in the Big Bang by as much as 20%. A multilevel Rmatrix analysis of the data indicates Γ = 122 keV for the 2^{} state ^{8}Be*(18.9), and a T = 1 impurity of ≈ 24% (1988KO03). At thermal energies the (n, α) cross section is ≤ 0.1 mb and the (n, γα) cross section is 155 mb: see (1974AJ01). See also (1987GLZZ, 1987GL1D), (1979AJ01, 1988BO15) and (1984YA1A, 1985BO1K, 1985DE1K; astrophysics).
^{8}Li decays to the broad 3.0 MeV, 2^{+} level of ^{8}Be, which decays into two αparticles. Both the βspectrum and the resulting αspectrum have been extensively studied: see (1955AJ61, 1966LA04). See also ^{8}B(β^{+}). Studies of the distribution of recoil momenta and neutrino recoil correlations indicate that the decay is overwhelmingly GT, axial vector [see reaction 1 in ^{8}Li] and that the ground state of ^{8}Li has J^{π} = 2^{+}: see (1980MC07). (1986WA01) has performed a manylevel onechannel approximation Rmatrix analysis of the βdelayed αparticle spectra in the decay of both ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, obtained by (1971WI05) [as well as of the L = 2 αα phase shifts]. Warburton finds that there is no need to introduce "intruder" states below E_{x} ≈ 26 MeV [see, e.g., (1974AJ01)]. He extracts the GT matrix elements for the decay to ^{8}Be*(3.0) and the doublet near 16 MeV; and he points out the difficulties in extracting meaningful E_{x} and γ values from the β^{±} decay for ^{8}Be*(3.0), as well as the log ft values for the transitions to that state (1986WA01). Betaα angular correlations have been measured for the decays of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B for the entire finalstate distribution: see Table 8.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01). (1980MC07) have measured the βνα correlations as a function of E_{x} in the decay of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, detecting both αparticles involved in the ^{8}Be decay. They find that the decay is GT for 2 < E_{x} < 8 MeV. The absence of Fermi decay strength is expected because the isovector contributions from the tails of ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9) interfere destructively in this energy region: see (1980MC07). The measurement of the βdecay asymmetry as a function of E_{β} is reported by (1986BI1D, 1985BIZZ; prelim.). (1986NAZZ; prelim.) have measured the βspectrum and compared it with the spectrum predicted from the αbreakup data. See also (1984KO25, 1985GR1A), (1986HA1P, 1988WA1E), (1986MA1T, 1986NAZZ; astrophysics) and (1983KU17, 1984BA25, 1986QUZZ, 1987LY05, 1988BA75; theor.).
The decay [see reaction 1 in ^{8}B] proceeds mainly to ^{8}Be*(3.0) [see Table 8.4 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01) for its parameters]. Detailed study of the highenergy portion of the αspectrum reveals a maximum near E_{α} = 8.3 MeV, corresponding to transitions to ^{8}Be*(16.63), for which parameters E_{x} = 16.67 MeV, Γ = 150 to 190 keV or E_{x} = 16.62 MeV, Γ = 95 keV are derived: see (1974AJ01). Log ft for the transition to ^{8}Be*(16.6) is 3.3. An analysis by (1986WA01) of the β^{+} delayed αspectrum is described in reaction 24. See also (1988WA1E) and (1988BA75; theor.). The β^{+} spectrum has been measured by (1987NA08) for momenta greater than 9 MeV/c. Then using the α spectra from (1986WA01) the ^{8}B neutrino spectrum is calculated. The average cross section for the "solar neutrino" ^{37}Cl(ν_{e}, e^{})^{37}Ar reaction is then (1.07 ± 0.02) × 10^{42} cm^{2} [certain corrections may increase this value by as much as 4%] (1987NA08). See also (1982BA1J, 1983CO1D, 1983FO1A, 1983HA1B, 1983VO1C, 1984DA1H, 1984HA1M, 1985BA1N, 1985BA1M, 1985CH1B, 1986BA21, 1986BE1K, 1986DE1H, 1986GR04, 1986HA1I, 1986MA1T, 1986RO1N, 1986WO1B, 1987BA1X, 1987BA89, 1987CH1G, 1987FR1C, 1987FU1G, 1987KR10, 1987RI1E, 1987WE1C, 1988BA86, 1988EW1A, 1988HA1M; astrophysics).
Neutron groups to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0) have been studied for E_{γ} = 18 to 26 MeV: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01) and ^{9}Be. Reaction (b) appears to proceed largely via excited states of ^{9}Be with subsequent decay mainly to ^{8}Be*(3.0): see (1966LA04, 1974AJ01), ^{9}Be and ^{10}Be. Reaction (c) has been studied at E_{p} = 45 and 47 MeV: the reaction primarily populates ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0): see (1979AJ01), ^{9}Be and ^{9}B. For work at E_{p} = 1 GeV see (1985BE30, 1985DO16). For reactions (d) and (e) see (1974AJ01) and ^{9}Be. For reaction (e) see (1979AJ01).
Angular distributions of deuteron groups have been reported at E_{p} = 0.11 to 185 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at 18.6 MeV (1986GO23, 1987GO27; d_{0} and d_{1}) and 50 and 72 MeV (1984ZA07; to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.9, 19.2)). For spectroscopic factors see (1979AJ01, 1984ZA07). The angular distributions to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.9, 17.6, 18.2, 19.1) are consistent with l_{n} = 1: see (1974AJ01). An anomalous group is reported in the deuteron spectra between the d_{0} and the d_{1} groups. At E_{p} = 26.2 MeV, its (constant with θ) E_{x} = 0.6 ± 0.1 MeV. Analyses of the spectral shape and transfer cross sections are consistent with this "ghost" feature being part of the BreitWigner tail of the J^{π} = 0^{+} ^{8}Be_{g.s.}: it contains < 10% of the g.s. transfer strength. An analysis of reported Γ_{c.m.} for ^{8}Be*(3.0) in this reaction shows that there is no E_{p} dependence. The average Γ_{c.m.} at E_{p} = 14.3 and 26.2 MeV is 1.47 ± 0.04 MeV. Γ_{c.m.} = 5.5 ± 1.3 eV for ^{8}Be_{g.s.} and 5.2 ± 0.1 MeV for ^{8}Be*(11.4). Spectroscopic factors for ^{8}Be_{g.s.} (including the "ghost" anomaly) and ^{8}Be*(3.0) are 1.23 and 0.22 respectively at E_{p} = 14.3 MeV, and 1.53 and 1.02 respectively at E_{p} = 26.2 MeV. The width of ^{8}Be*(3.0) is not appreciably (< 10%) reaction dependent but the nearness of the decay threshold indicates that care must be taken in comparing decay widths from reaction and from scattering data: E_{R} = 3130 ± 25 keV (resonance energy in the α+α c.m. system) [E_{x} = 3038 ± 25 keV] and Γ_{c.m.} = 1.50 ± 0.02 MeV for ^{8}Be*(3.0): the corresponding observed and formal reaction widths and channel radii are Γ_{R}^{2} = 580 ± 50 keV, Γ_{λ}^{2} = 680 ± 100 keV and s = 4.8 fm. See (1979AJ01) for the earlier work. A study of the continuum part of the inclusive deuteron spectra is reported at E_{pol. p} = 60 MeV (1987KA25). For reaction (b) see (1988BO47). For reaction (c) [FSI through ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0)] see (1974AJ01, 1984AJ01). See also (1985PU03; theor.) and ^{10}B.
Angular distributions have been measured for E_{d} = 0.3 to 28 MeV [see (1979AJ01)], at E_{d} = 18 MeV (1988GO02; t_{0}, t_{1}) and at E_{pol. d} = 2.0 to 2.8 MeV (1984AN16; t_{0}). At E_{d} = 28 MeV angular distributions of triton groups to ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9, 17.6, 18.2, 19.1, 19.2, 19.8) have been analyzed using DWUCK: absolute C^{2}S are 0.074, 1.56, 0.22, 0.17, 0.41, 0.48, 0.40 respectively. See also Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS). An isospin amplitude impurity of 0.21 ± 0.03 is found for ^{8}Be*(17.6, 18.2): see (1979AJ01). A kinematically complete study of reaction (b) at E_{d} = 26.3 MeV indicates the involvement of ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.4, 16.9, 19.9 + 20.1): see (1974AJ01). (1986PAZN; prelim.) report E_{x} = 3.10 ± 0.15 MeV, Γ ≈ 0.9  1.3 MeV. See also (1988NE1A; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured in the range E(^{3}He) = 3.0 to 26.7 MeV and at E(pol. ^{3}He) = 33.3 MeV (to ^{8}Be*(16.9, 17.6, 19.2)) [S = 1.74, 0.72, 1.17, assuming mixed isospin for ^{8}Be*(16.9)]. The possibility of a broad state at E_{x} ≈ 25 MeV is also suggested: see (1979AJ01). See also (1987VA1I). Reaction (b) has been studied at E(^{3}He) = 1.0 to 10 MeV [see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)], at E(^{3}He) = 3 to 12 MeV (1986LA26) and at 11.9 to 24.0 MeV (1987WA25). The reaction is reported to proceed via ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.4, 16.6, 16.9, 19.9, 22.5): see (1979AJ01) and (1986LA26, 1987WA25). For a discussion of the width of ^{8}Be*(11.4) see (1987WA25). See also ^{9}Be, and ^{12}C in (1980AJ01), (1985MC1C, applications) and (1985PU03; theor.).
Angular distributions have been studied at E(^{6}Li) = 32 MeV involving ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0) and ^{7}Li*(0, 0.48) (1985CO09). For reaction (b) see (1984KO25). For reaction (c) see ^{10}Be (1985JA09). For the earlier work see (1979AJ01).
Angular distributions for the transition to the first T = 2 state ^{8}Be*(27.49), and to ^{8}Li*(10.82) reached in the (p, ^{3}He) reaction, are very similar. They are both consistent with L = 0 using a DWBA (LZR) analysis: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01) and Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS) in (1984AJ01).
See (1988RIZZ; prelim).
The breakup of ^{10}B by 14.4 MeV neutrons involves, among others, ^{8}Be_{g.s.} (1984TU02). See also (1979AJ01) and ^{11}B in (1990AJ01).
Angular distributions of the ^{3}He ions to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.6, 16.9) have been studied at E_{p} = 39.4 MeV [see (1974AJ01)] and at E_{p} = 51.9 MeV (1983YA05; see for a discussion of isospin mixing of the 16.8 MeV states).
Angular distributions have been reported at E_{d} = 0.5 to 7.5 MeV: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). At E_{d} = 7.5 MeV the population of ^{8}Be*(16.63, 16.92) is closely the same consistent with their mixed isospin character while ^{8}Be*(17.64) is relatively weak consistent with its nearly pure T = 1 character. ^{8}Be*(16.63, 16.92, 17.64, 18.15) have been studied for E_{d} = 4.0 to 12.0 MeV. Interference between the 2^{+} states [^{8}Be*(16.63, 16.92)] varies as a function of energy. The crosssection ratios for formation of ^{8}Be*(17.64, 18.15) vary in a way consistent with a change in the population of the T = 1 part of the wave function over the energy range: at the higher energies, there is very little isospin violation. At higher E_{x} only the 3^{+} state at E_{x} = 19.2 MeV is observed, the neighboring 3^{+} state at E_{x} = 19.07 MeV is not seen. Γ_{16.6} = 90 ± 5 keV, Γ_{16.9} = 70 ± 5 keV, ΔQ = 290 ± 7 keV: see Table 8.5 (in PDF or PS) and (1979AJ01). Reaction (b) [E_{d} < 5 MeV] takes place mainly by a sequential process involving ^{8}Be*(0, 2.9, 11.4, 16.6, 16.9): see (1979AJ01). See also (1983DA11). [The work quoted in (1984AJ01) has not been published.] At E_{d} = 13.6 MeV in addition to ^{8}Be*(16.6, 16.9), states with E_{x} ≈ 19.9  20.2 MeV with Γ ≈ 0.7  1.1 MeV are involved (1988KA1K; prelim.). See also (1984SH1D, 1984SHZJ) and (1985PU03, 1988BA75, 1988KA1M; theor.).
See ^{6}Li here and reaction 40 in (1984AJ01). See also (1984SH1D, 1988SH1E).
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{p} = 0.78 to 45 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)], at E = 0.12 to 1.10 MeV (1987BE17; ^{11}B and p; α_{0}, α_{1}) and at E_{p} = 4.5 to 7.5 MeV (1983BO19; α_{0}). Reaction (b) has been studied for E_{p} = 0.15 to 20 MeV: see (1974AJ01, 1984AJ01). The reaction proceeds predominantly by sequential twobody decay via ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0). See also ^{12}C in (1990AJ01) and (1983CO1A, 1985MAZG, 1985PU03; theor.).
At E(^{3}He) = 71.8 MeV angular distributions of the ^{6}Li ions to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.6, 16.9, 17.6, 18.2) are reported (1986JA14). For the earlier work at 25.6 MeV see (1979AJ01). See also (1986JA02).
The work reported in (1984AJ01) has not been published. See also ^{7}Li here and (1984SH1D, 1988SH1E).
See (1984DA17) and ^{12}B in (1990AJ01).
The first two of these reactions involve ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0): see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01), reactions 39 and 42 in ^{12}C in (1985AJ01). See also (1986AN22) [reaction (a)] and (1982ZH06, 1985GA1B, 1986VD01; theor.). For reaction (c) see (1983LI18; theor.).
Angular distributions have been studied at E_{d} = 12.7 to 54.3 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at E_{pol. d} = 18 and 22 MeV (1986YA12; to ^{8}Be_{g.s.}; also VAP, TAP) and 51.7 MeV (1986YA12; to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.4; also VAP) as well as at E_{d} = 50 MeV (1987GO1S), 54.2 MeV (1984UM04; FRDWBA) [S_{α} = 0.48, 0.51 and 0.82 for ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.4)] and 78.0 MeV (1986JA14; to ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 16.6, 16.9)). See also (1985GO1G; E_{d} = 50 MeV). For reaction (b) see (1984AJ01). See also (1984NE1A) and (1983GA14, 1983SH39, 1985GA1B, 1987KA1L; theor.).
See ^{7}Li.
Angular distributions have been obtained at E(^{3}He) = 25.5 to 70 MeV [see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at E(pol. ^{3}He) = 33.4 MeV (1986CL1B; ^{8}Be_{g.s.}; also A_{y}; prelim.). ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.4, 16.6, 16.9, 17.6) have been populated. See also (1986RA15; theor.).
These reactions have been studied at E_{α} to 104 MeV [see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01, and ^{12}C in (1985AJ01))] and at 31.2 MeV (1986XI1A; reaction (a)): ^{8}Be*(0, 3.0, 11.4) are populated. See also (1984ZE1A, 1985GA1B, 1987KO1E; theor.).
Angular distributions involving ^{8}Be_{g.s.} + ^{13}C_{g.s.} (reaction (a)) have been reported at E(^{9}Be) = 20 to 22.9 MeV and E(^{12}C) = 0.5 to 13.5 MeV: see (1984AJ01). For both eactions see also (1983DEZW).
For reaction (a) see ^{16}O in (1986AJ04), (1983DEZW, 1984HU1E, 1984SP1C, 1986ALZN, 1986SH10) and (1984DA1B; theor.). For reaction (b) see reaction 18 in ^{20}Ne in (1987AJ02), (1985MU14) and (1988AL07; location of a 10^{+} state in ^{20}Ne at E_{x} ≈ 27.5 MeV). For reaction (c) see (1987SI06).
See ^{7}Li.
See (1984SH1D, 1988SH1F; prelim.; E_{α} = 27.2 MeV) and ^{9}Be in (1979AJ01).
See ^{14}C in (1986AJ01).
See ^{7}Li.
See (1986VD04; E_{p} = 50 MeV).
See (1987CZ02).
